Abnormal Psychology 3082 Exam 1 Gros

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Abnormal behavior

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120 Terms

1

Abnormal behavior

psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not typical of culturally expected

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2

Impairment

symptoms of a psychological disorder that limits one or more major factors of life

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3

Distress

painful mental and physical symptoms that are associated with normal fluctuations of mood in most people

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4

Dysfunction

Abnormal, cognitive, emotions, or behavioral functioning

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5

Psychologist

trained in research and delivering treatment

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6

Psychiatrist

medical degree, diagnose, emphasize drugs and other biological treatments.

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Social worker

deal with family situation of those with psychological disorders and concentrate on family problems

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8

Presenting problem

symptoms, reason for patient making an appointment

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9

Discrimination

distinguish between clinically significant dysfunction from common human experience

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10

Incidence

of cases over a period of time (i.e. per year)

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11

Prevalence

of people in a population that have the disorder

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12

Onset

The age at which symptoms of a disorder or disease begin to appear. acute (suddenly) or insidious (gradual)

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13

Course

episodic (episodes), time-limited, chronic

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14

Etiology

The cause/progress of a disease or disorder. Triggers the development of psychopathology

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15

Prognosis

The likely outlook or course of a disease. Good means good chance of treatment success. Guarded means not having enough info to say what the outcome will be

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16

Freud

had theories of unconscious conflict, catharsis, id, superego, ego (structure of the mind)

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17

Psychoanalytical theory

the role of the unconscious drives, such as related to sex and power as well as the important of early life experience

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18

Defense mechanisms

Protect us from being conscious or aware of a thought or feeling that we cannot tolerate, so you express this unconscious thought indirectly in a disguised form. The ego's attempt to manage id/superego conflict

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19

Displacement

You redirect emotions from one person or thing to another (kicking squirrel because you're mad at school)

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Reaction formation

You turn your feelings into the opposite because it's more acceptable (fake it till you make it)

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21

Projection

You think someone else has your thoughts or feelings (wife who has feelings for male-coworker gets jealous over husband mentioning female co-worker)

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22

Sublimate

You redirect emotions into something productive (I am going to write a poem about anger. Workout, clean, and healthy stuff)

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23

Oral

pleasure from oral activities like sucking and tasting

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24

Anal

ability to control bladder and bowels. Potty training

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25

Phallic

boys more attached to their moms, girls more attached to their dads

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26

Latency

acquiring skills and interacting with same sex peers

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27

Genital

attracted to opposite sex

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28

Free association

talking freely without direction in hope you'll reveal your unconscious

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29

Dream analysis

your dreams are an indication of what is going on in your subconscious

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30

Dix

mental hygiene movement

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31

Galen

biological tradition

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32

Humoral theory

there are bodily fluids called "humors" that control chemical balances in the body. too much black bile = depression

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33

Kraepelin

this person believed in biological tradition. believed that Psychological disorders are basically biological disturbances and have a unique age of onset, symptoms, and causes

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34

Kraeplin

First to identify schizophrenia

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35

Operant conditioning

people learning to repeat or decrease behaviors based on the consequences

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36

Positive reinforcement

when learner is GIVEN something when behavior occurs

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37

Negative reinforcement

when learner has something TAKEN when behavior occurs

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38

Skinner

behavioral therapy through operant conditioning

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39

Pinel

patients should not be restrained.

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40

Id

illogical, emotional, impulsive "I need to now" (devil on shoulder)

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41

Superego

morals "it's wrong", (angel on shoulder)

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Ego

rational, logic, reality "chill out we got this" (solves conflict between ID and Superego)

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43

Conscious

aware. What we know

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44

Preconscious

almost aware

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45

Unconscious

not aware

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46

Classical conditioning

learning where a neutral stimulus is paired with a response until it elicits that response

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47

Unconditioned Stimulus

stimulus that leads to an automatic response

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48

Unconditioned Response

automatic response to stimuli

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49

Conditioned Stimulus

eventually triggers a conditioned response

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50

Conditioned Response

automatic response established by training

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51

Supernatural

caused by demon possession, witchcraft etc...

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52

Behavioral model

classical and operant conditioning

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53

Biological

physical disease (Hippocrates)

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54

Humoral theory

there are fluids called humors that control chemicals. ex: blood, phlegm, black and yellow bile

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55

Galenic-Hippocratic functioning

related to having too much or too little key bodily fluids

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56

Biopsychosocial model

Interaction between biological factors, psychological factors, and social factors

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57

Dominant genes

always going to show up

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58

Recessive genes

must be paired with another recessive gene to show

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59

Diatheses-stress model

when someone has a genetic predisposition for a certain disorder and a stressor will trigger it .

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60

Neuron

process everything from feelings, to movement, to behaviors. They communicate with each other through branches and trunks

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Soma

cell body

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Dendrites

branches that receive messages from other neurons

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Axon

trunk of neuron that sends messages to other neurons

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Axon terminals

buds at the end of axon from which chemical messages are sent

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Synapses

small gaps that separate neurons

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66

Serotonin

neurotransmitter related to mood. low = depressed

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67

GABA

neurotransmitter related to behavior and emotion. low = anxiety

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68

Norepinephrine

similar to adrenaline (fight or flight); fear, alarm reaction

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Dopamine

pleasure seeking behaviors; Schizophrenia, Parkinson's and other behaviors and thought processes. high = schizophrenic behaviors

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Reuptake

reabsorption by a neuron of a neurotransmitter following the transmission of a nerve impulse across a synapse

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Agonist

increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by mimicking its effects

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Antagonist

inhibits or blocks the production of neurotransmitters or functions indirectly to prevent the chemical from reaching the next neuron by closing or occupying the receptors

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inverse agonist

produce effects opposite to a given neurotransmitter. Psych drugs are usually either antagonists or agonists

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74

Sympathetic nervous system

readies the body for the fight or flight.

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75

Parasympathetic nervous system

control activities during rest or conservation of energy

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76

Frontal lobe

thinking, reasoning, memory

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Parietal lobe

this lobe is responsible for touch recognition

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78

Occipital lobe

integrates visual input

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79

Temporal lobe

sights, sounds, long term memory

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80

Thalamus

relays sensory and motor signals, as well as regulation of consciousness and alertness. EXCEPT SMELL

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81

smell

which sense holds the strongest memory?

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82

Mental Status Exam

systematic evaluation of psychological, biological, and sociostructural factors in a person suspected of having a mental disorder. Important because we need to: understand the person, predict behavior, plan treatment, evaluate treatment outcome.

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83

Affect

cooperative, suspicious, guarded, polite, oppositional?

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84

Mood

happy, irritable, elevated, depressed, euphoric?

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85

Sensorium

reception and interpretation of stimuli. Clear or cloudy i.e. how alert is someone of who, what, where they are, date, time etc...

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86

Hallucinations

auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste)

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Tactile hallucination

feeling like things are crawling on you; associated with meth, cocaine etc...

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Olfactory hallucination

smelling things that arent there

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Gustatory hallucination

tasting things that arent there like metallic taste (symptom mostly related to epilepsy)

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90

Delusions

irrational strongly held beliefs that are out of touch with reality

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91

Reliability

Consistency in measurement. Greater reliability = greater objective

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92

Validity

Does the assessment measure what it's supposed to measure.

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93

Standardization

ensures consistency in the use of a technique. Provides population benchmarks for comparison. Structured administration, scoring, and evaluation procedures

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94

Projective test

Answers reveal inner psychological needs, feeling, experiences, thought processes, or other hidden aspects of the mind (unconscious conflicts). LOW reliability and validity

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95

Objective tests

the subject's behavior is measured without him being aware in what ways his behavior is likely to affect the interpretation. true or false, yes/no, strongly agree—disagree

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96

MMPI

asseses personality traits and psychopathology.

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97

Thematic Apperception Test

you see a picture and tell a story about it

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98

Categorical Approach

strict categories. You either have a disorder or don't. NO spectrum

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99

Dimensional Approach

people have varying amounts of something like different levels of anxiety in social situations. Characteristics fall on a continuum.

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100

Prototypical Approach

combination of the 2. Identifies essential features of a psychological disorder so it can be classified but allows for nonessential variations.

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