BIOL 1442 Ch 47 The Biodiversity Crisis

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37 Terms

1

ecologist have measured biodiversity by

taking into account both the number of species and their relative abundance to eachother

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2

adaptive radiation

rapid branching through speciation of a phylogenetic clade into many related species

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3

extinction

the disappearance of a species

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4

The rate of species loss today is comparable with

the five periods of mass extinction

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5

Three human activities have a major impact on the current extinction:

destruction of habitat, introduction of exotic species, and over-harvesting

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6

genetic diversity/genetic variation

defines the raw material for evolution and adaptation in species

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7

the species with the most genetic potential for subsequent evolution is the most

genetically diverse one

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8

genetic diversity can be measured as chemical diversity in that

different species produce a variety of chemicals in their cells

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9

ecosystem diversity

the number of different ecosystems on the planet of within a given geographic area

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10

The loss of an ecosystem means

the loss of interactions between species, the loss of unique features of coadaptation, and the loss of biological productivity

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11

Endemic species

only found in one location

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12

biodiversity increases

closer to the equator

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13

The hypothesis for why biodiversity increases closer to the equator include

the greater age of ecosystems in the tropics and the increased direct energy the tropics receive from the sun

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14

Tropical ecosystem complexity may promote speciation by increasing the

heterogeneity (number of ecological niches) in the tropics relative to higher latitudes

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15

The tropics have been perceived as being more stable than

temperate regions

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16

Norman Myers developed the concept of

biodiversity hotspots

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17

Biodiversity hotspots

geographical areas that contain high numbers of endemic species

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18

The number of species on the planet are the result of

speciation and extinction

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19

Five strata in the fossil record that appear to show sudden and dramatic losses in biodiversity are called

mass extinctions

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20

The Ordovician-Silurian extinction is the

first recorded mass extinction and the second largest, killing 85% of marine species

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21

The main hypothesis for the Ordovician-Silurian extinction is

a period of glaciation then warming

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22

The late Devonian extinction may have occurred ( ) and mostly affected ( )

over a relatively long period of time; marine species

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23

The end-Permian extinction was the ( ) in the history of life

largest

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24

In the end-Permian extinction, ( ) of all marine species and ( ) of all terrestrial species were lost

96%, 70%

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25

The leading suspect for the end-Permian extinction is

extended and widespread volcanic activity that led to a global-warming event

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26

In the end-Permian extinction, the oceans became largely ( ), suffocating marine life

anoxic

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27

The Triassic-Jurassic extinction may have been caused by

climate change, asteriod impact, and volcanic eruptions

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28

The end-Cretaceous extinction event was the result of a

cataclysmic impact of a large meteorite off the coast of the Yucatan peninsula

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29

The Pleistocene extinction was one of the ( ) extinctions and was ( )

lesser; recent

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30

In North America, the Pleistocene extinction losses included

woolly mammoths, mastodon, giant beavers, giant ground sloths, saber-toothed cats, and the North American camel

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31

The timing of the Pleistocene extinctions coincided with the arrival of

paleo-humans

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32

The Holocene extinction is the ( ) and is largely do to activities of ( )

sixth mass extinction; modern homo sapiens

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33

Some examples of animals going extinct during the Holocene extinction include the

dodo bird, Steller’s sea cow, passenger pigeon, Carolina parakeet, Japanese sea lion, and Carribean monk seal

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34

The International Union for Conservation of Nature keeps a list of extinct and endangered species called the

red list

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35

Estimation of extinction rates are hampered bu the fact that

most extinctions are probably happening without observation

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36

background extinction rate is estimated to be about

one per million species per year

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37

species-area relationship

the rate at which new species are seen when the area surveyed is increased

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