BIO 181 Test 2-Ecology

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Ecosystem

A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

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Organismal Ecology

study of an organism's relationship with its environment

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Population Ecology

study of interaction between members of the same species

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Biotic Factors

living organisms in an ecosystem

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Abiotic Factors

non-living physical and chemical elements of an ecosystem

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Population

groups of individuals of the same species in the same place

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3 Characteristics of Populations

-same range/area -pattern of spacing of individuals is the same -change in size throughout time

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Density-dependent factors

predation, inter and intra specific competition, accumulation of waste, diseases, etc.

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Density-independent factors

weather, disasters, pollution, & other chemical/physical conditions

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Cohort

group of individuals of same age

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fecundity

number of offspring produced in a standard time

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mortality

death rate in a standard time

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life table

probability of survival and reproduction through a cohort's life

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net reproduction rate

1=increasing <1=decreasing =1=balanced/stable

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survivorship

percent of original population surviving to given age

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survivorship curve

graph of number of individuals surviving at each age interval

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population growth

populations often remain same size regardless of number of offspring born

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exponential growth

when the biotic potential of any population is exponential and left unchecked, the population will explode. (J curve)

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carrying capacity(K)

maximum number of individuals that an environment can support

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logistic growth

applies to populations as they reach K. (S curve)

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Demography

quantitative study of populations

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generation times

average interval between birth of an individual and birth of its offspring

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K-selected species

-mature late -greater longevity -increased parental care -increased competition -fewer offspring -larger offspring

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r-selected species

-mature early -lower longevity -decreased parental care -decreased competition -more offspring -smaller offspring

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community ecology

the study of interacting populations of species living within a particular area or habitat

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intraspecific competition

competition within a species

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interspecific competition

competition between species

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interference competition

direct, physical interactions over resources

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exploitative competition

interact indirectly by consuming the same resources

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mechanisms to avoid competition

-intimidation (coloration and features) -camouflage -isolation mechanisms -specializing on particular resources -temporal adaptations -moving locations -social behaviors for collaboration -territoriality -symbiotic relationships

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competitive exclusion principle

two species cannot occupy the same niches in a habitat

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niche

total range of conditions under which an individual (or population) lives and replaces itself

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realized niche

actual set of conditions under which an organisms exists

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fundamental niche

entire set of optimal conditions under which an organismic unit can live and replace itself

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resource partitioning

the differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community

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character displacement

difference in morphology between sympatric species

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predation

consumption of prey by its predator

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coevolution

features that decrease predation are strongly favored

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niche restrictions

-other species -predators -pollinators -herbivores

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aposematic coloration

specific coloration that signals a warning for predators

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batesian mimicry

harmless species imitate warning signals of harmful species

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Mullerian mimicry

related or unrelated poisonous species that share a predator come to resemble one another's warning signals

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plant chemical defenses

-tough fibers -high cellulose content -oils, toxins, poisonous milky sap

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types of symbiosis

-commensalism -parasitism -mutualism

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commensalism

an interaction between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm

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parasitism

an interaction between two organisms in which one benefits and the other (host) is harmed

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endoparasites

live within the body of host

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ectoparasites

live on surface of host

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parasitoidism

parasite deposits eggs in/on host

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endosymbiont

live inside another, but usually mutualistic

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mutualism

an interaction between two organisms in which both organisms benefit

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species richness

number of species present

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abundance

number of individuals per species

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relative abundance

how common or rare relative to others

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diversity

species richness and evenness of species' abundances

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evatranspiration

the release of water into the atmosphere as water vapor, by evaporation, transpiration, and respiration

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dominant species

most abundant

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keystone species

most influential with respect to trophic levels

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foundation species

allows other species to inhabit an area by altering the environment

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main abiotic cycles

-water -carbon -nitrogen -phosphorus

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flow of energy

the movement of energy through an ecosystem

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how energy exists

-heat -light -chemical-bond energy -motion

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1st law of thermodynamics

energy is neither created nor destroyed; changes forms

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2nd law of thermodynamics

Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.

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major source of energy

the sun

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trophic levels

group of organisms which occupy the same level in a food chain

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autotrophs (primary producers)

"self-feeders" assemble inorganic precursors into the array of organic compounds of which they are made

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photoautotrophs

gain energy from light

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chemoautotrophs

energy from inorganic materials

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heterotrophs (consumers)

obtain organic compounds by consuming other organisms

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ten percent rule/law

during transfer of energy down trophic levels, only ~10% of energy is stored as biomass and is all that's available to the next trophic level

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number of trophic levels

limited by energy availability

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primary producers

autotrophs

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consumers

-herbivores -primary carnivores -secondary carnivores -detritivores

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limiting nutrients

nutrients in shortest supply and put a limit on growth

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gross primary productivity

rate at which primary producers incorporate energy from the sun

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net primary productivity

energy that remains in primary producers after respiration and heat loss

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