Reproduction (The last unit…) and final

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Meiosis

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269 Terms

1

Meiosis

formation of haploid gametes

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Haploid

one set of chromosomes

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diploid

two sets of chromosomes

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The testes

Functions

Sperm production, Testosterone Production

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5

the testes

Sperm Production

in seminiferous tubules

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6

the testes

Testosterone production

Leydig interstitial cells

interstitial cells of Leydig

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Spermatic Cord Contains the

vas deferens, testicular artery and vein (pampiniform plexus), smooth muscle, nerves, and lymphatics

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spermatic cord helps to regulate

temperature

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Descent of Testes location

In fetus, testes are located along the posterior abdominal wall, near kidneys, retroperitoneal

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10

what secretion triggers the testes descendent

Testosterone

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11

testes led into position by the

gubernaculum ( fibromuscular cord )

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12

If testicles don’t descend what’s it called

Undescended testicles

need surgery by first birthday can causse infertility

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13

Rete testes

Complex network of channels; goes into epididymis

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14

Seminiferous Tubules lined with

germinal epithelium ( makes sperm )

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15

what cells produced testosterone

interstitial cells

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16

Sperm

what enzymes break down the egg membrane

Hyaluronidase

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17

sperm

what supplies the energy for swimming

mitochondria

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18

Immature sperm move from the testis to the

epididymis

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19

epididymis secretes

glycogen to nourish sperm

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20

what is the muscular tube running upward as part of the spermatic cord from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct

vas Deferens

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21

vas Deferens function

a sperm duct ( only sperm are carried through the vas deferens )

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22

Seminal Vesicles Describe

Paired glands

Where they connect is the dividing point between the vas deferens and the ejaculatory duct

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23

seminal vesicles functions

Secretes an alkaline fluid

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24

seminal vesicles what in the alkaline fluid that is being secreted

fructose-ascorbic acid-coagulating enzymes- prostaglandins

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Added to sperm during ejaculation

alkaline fluid

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26

Seminal Vesicles function also includes suppressing an

immune response by the female against the foreign semen

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27

The short duct

Begins where the vas deferens and the seminal vesicle meet

Ends where urethra begins

Located in the prostate gland

Ejaculatory duct

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28

seminal vesicles is an what gland

Accessory

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29

an prostate gland is a what gland

Accessory

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30

describe the prostate gland

Single, doughnut shaped gland

Inferior to the bladder

Secretes a thin, milky fluid into urethra during ejaculation

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31

what are the functions of the prostate gland

Secretes fluid containing enzymes that help activate sperm (motility)

Neutralize seminal fluid and vaginal secretions

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32

A Bulbourethral / Cowper’s Glands are what type of gland

Accessory glands

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33

Describe the Bulbourethral / Cowper’s Glands

2 Pea sized glands- Inferior to the prostate

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34

what are the functions Bulbourethral / Cowper’s Glands

Produces a thick mucus just before ejaculation that ‘flushes’ the urethra

Secrete a lubricant fluid for sexual intercourse

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35

describe the urethra

Tube at the end of the reproductive tract

After the ejaculatory duct

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36

functions of the Urethra

carries urine and semen

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37

can urine and semen in males be released at the same time

NO

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38

Sperm can live for weeks in the male repro tract, but die within

1-2 days of leaving

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39

20 million sperm per ejaculation

is clinically sterile

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40

how many quarts of sperm produced in the lifetime

18

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41

frozen sperm can be stored for

years

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42

Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Gland, and Bulbourethral Gland Help Create

Semen

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43

Semen is a mixture of sperm and

accessory gland secretions (seminal fluid)

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44

Accessory gland secretions allow for the sperm to

live and carry out their task in the woman

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45

Sperm are inactive until they are mixed with

the secretions from the accessory organs

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46

60% of semen is

seminal vesicle secretions

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47

seminal vesicle secretions

High in pH alkaline

Neutralizes acidic vagina

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48

seminal vesicle secretions

fructose Ascorbic acid

Nutrients for Sperm Cells

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49

seminal vesicle secretions

Coagulating enzyme

Clump for a united front to survive the angry vagina

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50

seminal vesicle secretions

prostaglandins

Sperm transport – fight off immune attacks

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51

Male External Reproductive Parts

Penis-Scrotum ( Contain testicles )

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52

Describe the scrotum

A sac of skin and connective tissue (superficial fascia)

Medial septum dividing it into two chambers for testes

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53

what is the name of the muscle in scrotal wall causes skin to hang loosely or be held close to the body

Dartos

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54

Dartos muscle helps with

Temperature regulation

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55

sperm suspended outside

pelvis

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56

Describe the penis internally

Three long, cylindrical erectile bodies which are made of connective tissue and smooth muscle, and vascular spaces

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57

Functions of the penis

Delivers sperm to the female reproductive system; urine

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58

The penis has 3 columns of

Erectile tissue

( 2 corpora cavernosa has artery)

(1 corpus spongiosum contain the urethra )

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59

Erection, Orgasm, Ejaculation

Vascular spaces become engorged with blood as arteries dilate, veins

compress (blood in, not out)

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Culmination of sexual stimulation, accompanied by emission and ejaculation

Orgasm

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Movement of seminal fluid into urethra; due to sympathetic nerve reflexes involving peristaltic contraction smooth muscles

Emission

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Forceful expulsion of seminal fluid (sympathetic nerves constrict the arteries, vascular spaces contract, blood can leave through veins) = FLACCID penis results

Ejaculation

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63

Spontaneous emissions and ejaculations that occur in adolescent males during sleep (caused by hormonal changes during puberty)

Nocturnal Emissions

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64

Nocturnal Emissions caused by

hormonal changes during puberty

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FSH released in males

causes Spermatogenesis

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66

LH release in males

causes increased testosterone production from the testes

(promotes development of interstitial cells – secrete testosterone)

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67

Major hormone

In fetus and just after birth, then secretion stops until after puberty

Stimulates production of the male reproductive organs and testes descent

Puberty  enlargement of testes and accessory organs; development of secondary sex characteristics

Testosterone

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Male Secondary Sexual Characteristics

Body Hair

Enlargement of larynx; thickening of vocal cords (deepens voice)

Thickening of skin

Increased muscle growth, broad shoulders, narrow hips

Thicken and strengthen bones

Increase cellular metabolism

Increased rate of blood cell production

Stimulation of sexual activity

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69

Level of Testosterone Remains Relatively Constant Due to

Negative Feedback (Pituitary & Hypothalamus)

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70

Primary female reproductive organs

Paired female sex glands/gonads

Ovaries

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71

Ovaries suspended by

ligaments (specialized peritoneum)

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72

ovaries Descend like testes but

stay inside pelvic cavity

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73

what produce gametes ( eggs, oocytes, Ova) by oogenesis

Ovaries

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74

Corpus Luteum CL in ovaries does what

Produces and secretes estrogen from follicles and progesterone

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Ovary medulla

inner part; loose connective tissue, vasculature, nerves, lymphatics

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Ovary cortex

follicles and germinal epithelium

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Develop from primordial follicles in ovary (several million formed before birth)

Each primordial follicle contains one large cell = PRIMARY OOCYTE  All formed before birth

Several million formed  1 million at birth  400,000 at puberty  Only 400-500 released during reproductive years

Ovum

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78

FSH in Females

Ovaries enlarge; Develops follicle in ovary

↑ in estrogen from follicle

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79

LH in Females

Causes ovulation

formation of corpus luteum

↑ in estrogen and progesterone

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80

Theca cells produce

Estrogen

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81

Zona pellucida

thick, tough membrane

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Zona pellucida Once a sperm enters

becomes impermeable

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Corona radiata

rim of follicular cells

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84

Corona radiata rim of follicular cells Each month up to 20 follicles begin to mature

Only 1 does

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Ovulation

As follicle matures, oocyte undergoes

oogenesis → SECONDARY OOCYTE

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Ovulation oogenesis characteristics

Follicles swell, its wall weakens and ruptures

Oocyte and fluid ooze into peritoneal cavity and picked up by fimbriae

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87

The pathway that the ova travels to get to the uterus

No direct contact with ovaries

Made of mucosa (w cilia), muscle (peristalsis), peritoneum

Fallopian Tubes

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88

Fallopian tubes are made of

Mucosa peristalsis peritoneum

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89

what are the fallopian tubes functions

Receives the egg from ovary through the peritoneal cavity

Site of fertilization

During an (abnormal) ectopic pregnancy, this is one of the sites of implantation of the fertilized egg

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90

what is the site of fertilization in the body

Fallopian tubes

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91

female Hollow, muscular (smooth), thick-walled organ

Uterus

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92

Receives, retains, and nourishes the fertilized ovum these are all function of the

Uterus

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93

Parts of the Uterus

Perimetrium

Endometrium

Myometrium

Cervix

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94

Parts of the Uterus

Perimetrium

outer, visceral peritoneum

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95

Parts of the Uterus

Endometrium

the inner lining

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96

Parts of the Uterus

myometrium

middle muscle layer

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97

Parts of the Uterus

Cervix

the narrow uterine neck, the outlet into the vagina

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98

The three ligaments and the uterus

Broad ligament

Round ligament

Ovarian ligament

suspensory ligament

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99

ligaments of the uterus

Broad ligament

Large and flat

supports uterus

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ligaments of the uterus

Round ligament

Tubular ligament

Runs from the uterus towards the labia majora

Supports the uterus

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