Endocrine System - Hormones

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Insulin (Metabolic)

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Biology

12th

29 Terms

1

Insulin (Metabolic)

  • produced by the pancreas (Beta Cells)

  • lowers blood levels by storing glucose as glycogen in liver and making cells permeable to glucose

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2

Glucagon (Metabolic)

  • produced by the pancreas (Alpha Cells)

  • increases blood sugar by turning glycogen to glucose

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3

Estrogen (sex hormone)

  • synthesized in Ovarian Follicle

  • develops endometrium in uterus

  • causes secondary characteristics in females

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4

Erythropoietin (Blood)

  • increases red blood cell production

  • initiates Hemoglobin production

  • produced in the kidneys

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5

Progesterone (sex hormone)

  • synthesized by the corpus luteum

  • completes the development of the endometirum

  • inhibits ovulation

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6

LH (leutenizing hormone) (sex hormone)

  • produced by the Pituitary

  • causes ovulation and formation of corpus luteum in ovary

  • stimulates the production of testosterone in males

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7

Testosterone (sex hormone)

  • produced in testes

  • stimulates the development of sperm

  • causes secondary sexual characteristics in males

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8

Oxytocin (sex hormone)

  • synthesized in hypothalamus

  • causes uterine contractions during labour

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9

Prolactin (sex hormone)

  • synthesized in pituitary

  • stimulates milk production in mammary glands

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10

Cortisol (Stress)

  • stimulates carb metabolism, increases blood glucose level, increases blood pressure

  • produced in adrenal glands

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11

Aldosterone (Water-Balance)

  • increases Na+ reabsorption in kidneys

  • increases blood pressure

  • iproduced by the adrenal glands

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12

Antidiuretic Hormone (Water-Balance)

  • stimulates water reabsorption in kidneys

  • prevents dehydration

  • produced by the hypothalamus

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13

Angiotensin & Renin (Water-Balance)

  • stimulates the release of aldosterone

  • constricts blood vessels

  • produced in the nephrons

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14

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) (sex hormone)

  • produced by the pituitary

  • stimulates the maturation of the follicle in the ovary

  • stimulates the production of sperm

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15

Growth Hormone (Metabolic)

  • produced by the pituitary gland

  • stimulates bone growth and fat metabolism

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16

Epinephrine & Norepinephrine (Stress)

  • causes fight or flight response (e.g. increased heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolic rate; dilates blood vessels, dilates bronchioles, dilates pupils)

  • also called adrenaline

  • produced by adrenal glands

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17

T4 and T3 (Metabolic)

  • produced by the thyroid gland

  • determines rate of oxidation of glucose (metabolic rate)

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18

Parathyroid Hormone (Metabolic)

  • produced by the parathyroid glands

  • increases blood calcium level by stimulating the loss of calcium from bone

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19

Thymosin (Blood)

  • increases the production and maturation of white blood cells

  • produced by the thymus gland

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20

Endocrine gland

glands that release hormones directly into the bloodstream

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21

Steroid hormone

fat-soluble hormone made of cholesterol

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22

Protein hormone

water-soluble hormone made of amino acids

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23

Target cell

cell that has a receptor for a particular hormone

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24

Pituitary gland

The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, this gland controls many other endocrine glands.

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25

Corpus luteum

a remnant of an ovarian follicle after ovulation that secretes the hormone progesterone

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26

Menstruation

the endometrium breaks up and is discharged from the body

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27

Endometrium

inner lining of the uterus

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28

Ovulation

the process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube

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29

Follicle

the sac in the ovary in which the ovum develops

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