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1

List the steps of the scientific method

question collect

Hypothesis

Experiment

Data

Analyze

Conclusion

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2

Contrast the independent variable in a controlled experiment

Something, being manipulated

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3

Contrast the dependent variable in a controlled experiment

Something being measured

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4

When do you use a bar graph?

When the data is discreet (comparing groups)

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5

When do you use a line graph?

When the data is continuous (change over time)

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6

What are standard deviation calculations use for?

if data is spread out

To see what data is better

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7

What are Standard error calculations used for?

To show how accurate your data is

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8

What are chi-squared calculations used for?

To determine how close observed data is to expected results

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9

When do you accept the null hypothesis in the chi square test?

If the Chi square is lower than the critical value you accept

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10

When do you reject a null hypothesis?

If the Chi square is higher than the critical value you reject

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11

How do you start a null hypothesis?

“ there is no significant difference between…”

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12

What are two good scientific questions?

includes measurable values

Identifies the independent and dependent variable

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13

In reality is the scientific process, linear or nonlinear

Nonlinear

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14

While interpreting data you should?

support a hypothesis

Oppose a hypothesis

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15

A good hypothesis includes what?

A statement, not a question

Testable

Falsifiable

Defines measurable variables

Is written in the form of “if…then”

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16

Characteristics of a true experiment include?

Random assignment to groups

Control of extraneous variables

Manipulation of the independent variable

Qualitative measurement of outcomes

Comparison of participate groups

Contains a control group

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17

What are confounding variables?

Other variables that must be identified and controlled

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18

What is quantitative data?

Numerical results

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19

What is qualitative data?

Non-numerical results

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20

Test groups should be a large size or…

The experiment should be performed several times

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21

After the experiment, the results are analyzed, and a conclusion is made by?

the hypothesis is either being accepted or rejected based on the evidence

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22

The independent variable goes on what axis

X-axis

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23

The dependent variable goes on what axis y-axis

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24

Is qualitative or quantitative data graphable?

Quantitative

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25

How do you label a “good title”

By telling exactly what information the author is trying to present with the graph. (X vs Y)

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26

Basic traits of a good graph include

axes should be consistently numbered

Axes should contain labels including units

The independent variable is always shown on the X axis

The dependent variable is always shown on the Y axis

The line should not be extended to the origin if the data does not start there

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27

If a line on a graph goes from solid to “broken” (dashed) this indicates what?

Shows it is a prediction

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28

The slope of a line indicates what?

The rate at which the variables being graphed are changing

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29

Capital (N) indicates what?

Population

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30

Lowercase (n)indicates what?

Sample

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31

Intervals labeled on each axes should be appropriate for?

The range of data so that most of the area of the graph can be used

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32

The graph should have an appropriate (blank) if more than one data set is being represented

Legend

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33

One standard deviation is what percent?

68.2%

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34

Two standard deviations is what percent

95%

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35

Three standard deviations is what percent

99%

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36

What does this symbol (x̄) represent?

The mean

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37

Mean definition

The average of given numbers calculated by dividing the sum of given numbers by the total number of numbers

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38

Median definition

The middle number in an assorted, ascending or descending list of numbers (going from lowest to highest)

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39

Mode definition

The value that appears most frequently in the data set

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40

Standard error shows?

How good your data is

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41

When error bars overlap what does that mean?

You shouldn’t trust the data (it’s not significantly significant)

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42

When error bars do **not** overlap. What does that mean?

There is a statistical difference you can trust the data

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43

How do you find the degree of freedom?

You take the number of outcomes -1

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44

What value do you always use class?

Critical value

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