Unit 2/3 Quiz Study Guide

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Limited Government

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60 Terms
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Limited Government

The government's powers are enumerated

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Equality of Opportunity

All people are given a fair opportunity to move up the socioeconomic ladder

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Free Enterprise

The markets determine the price of things rather than the government

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The rule of law

No one is above the law

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Civil Liberties

Enumerated rights

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Federalism

How powers are shared between the national and state governments

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Factors of socialization: Family

Done in an informal setting where children pick up on their parents beliefs over time even if they aren't overtly stated. Most young people vote based on parents' beliefs

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Factors of socialization: Education

This helps promote national unity and promote individuals to support the political system. More educated individuals will have a higher chance of voting

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Factors of socialization: Media

The selection of media sources will echo back and reinforce beliefs

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Rational Choice

Rational-choice voters examine an issue or candidate to evaluate the promises and decide in a way that benefits the voter. They decide on the best choice for either themselves or a larger group.

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Retrospective Voting

Retrospective voting is when voters look at the candidates’ track record. It is to find out what a person has done or hasn’t done to help decide who they will vote for.

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Prospective Voting

Thinking about how something or someone will affect them in the future

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Party Line Voting

Voting for the political party that they are loyal to

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Gender Voting Trends

Unmarried women tend to vote democratic with a higher turnout. But married women and men tend to vote republican.

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Age Voting Trends

18-30 year olds vote for democrats in lower numbers. Senior citizens vote repulican with higher numbers.

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African American Voting Trends

Tend to vote democratic

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Hispanic Voting Trends

Tend to vote democratic

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Asian American Voting Trends

Tend to vote republican

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Evangelicals Voting Trends

Tend to vote republican

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Catholics Voting Trends

Tend to vote democratic

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Jewish Voting Trends

Tend to vote democratic

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Business Voting Trends

Tend to vote republican

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Union Voting Trends

Tend to vote democratic

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Conservative Voting Trends

Tend to vote republican

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Liberal Voting Trends

Tend to vote democratic

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Green Party Ideals

A left wing party supporting green politics, specifically environmentalism; nonviolence; social justice; participatory democracy, grassroots democracy; anti-war; anti-racism; libertarian socialism and eco-socialism

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Libertarian Party Ideals

Promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, and limiting the size and scope of government.

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First past the post (winner take all) vs. proportional voting

First past the post is the person who wins most votes. Proportional voting is an electoral system in which voters cast their votes for political parties and the percentage of the vote that each party receives translates into the percentage of seats that the party receives in the legislature.

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Barriers to 3rd party success

Most US elections are first past the post so only one person wins. And the two major parties incorporate the platforms of third parties into their own

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Open ended vs. close ended poll questions

Open-ended questions are questions that allow someone to give a free-form answer. Closed-ended questions can be answered with “Yes” or “No,” or they have a limited set of possible answers

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Tracking Polls

They follow a question over time to see how attitudes change

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Straw Polls

Informal polls which don't offer valid data to the population as a whole

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Exit Polls

Collects demographic data. Used to project winners and why they won

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Margin of error

The level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll, +/-3%

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Random Sample

Every individual has unknown and random chance of being selected.

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Representative Sample

Draws from all groups in proportion to their representation in the population.

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Pros of Polling

Gives access to political thoughts during non-elections and highlights points to focus on for candidates

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Cons of Polling

Possible forced results, people without a full opinion usually guess which can make innacurate results, media/leader manipulation, sponsors, excluded groups, low info, and framing

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Presidential Approval Rating

It is a survey to see if the president is doing a good job

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Gatekeeper

What news makes and doesn't make it, signaling

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Scorekeeper/Horse-race

Media reports polls of candidates, and reports on goals/messages from campaigns. Candidates can be seen on news programs almost 24/7

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Watchdog

Reports on scandals, issues, and fact-check

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Bully Pulpit

How the president is able to communicate with the people through the media

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Press Secretary

grants to the press and television journalists access to any information about the president.

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Forms of media

Television, Internet,...

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Media Bias

the bias or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events and stories that are reported and how they are covered.

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Voter turnout trends

Depends on electoral competitiveness, election type, voting laws, and demographics

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Voter apathy

Not caring about the election or outcome

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Voter efficacy

A belief that your vote matters

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Voter ID Laws

The more laws/barriers decrease the voter turnout

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Members of the House of Representatives

435

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Members of the Senate

100

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Initiative

a process that enables citizens to bypass their state legislature by placing proposed statutes and, in some states, constitutional amendments on the ballot.

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Referendum

A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment

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Recall

the power of the voters to remove elected officials before their terms expire

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Cracking

Splitting the opposing party's voters into many different districts.

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Packing

Packing as many voters as possible of an opposing party into one district.

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Majority-minority Districts

a racial or ethnic minority makes up a large-enough share of the electorate to assure that the community has a reasonable chance to elect the candidate of their choice.

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Baker v. Carr

federal courts could hear cases alleging that a state's drawing of electoral boundaries, i.e. redistricting, violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution.

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Shaw v. Reno

any law that results in classification by race must have a compelling government interest, be narrowly tailored to meet that goal, and be the least restrictive means for achieving that interest.

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