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Binary Fission

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Binary Fission

Asexual reproduction of bacterial/prokaryotic cells; production of genetically identical cells. Divided into three phases

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Replication, Elongation, and Separation

What are the three phases of Binary fission?

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Replication

bacterial DNA is copied and attached to the plasma membrane

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Elongation

increase of cell size and content between the replicated DNA

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Separation

bacterial cells split between replicated DNA

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Bacterial Conjugation

sexual reproduction of bacterial cells; exchanging of plasmids (extra genetic info) between bacteria that are genetically different

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Laws of thermo

_____ : defined properties and behavior of energy

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potential energy

____ energy: stored energy

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kinetic energy

_____ energy : energy of motion or movement

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first law of thermo

_____ : energy cannot be created or destroyed

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2nd law of thermo

_____ : as energy changes forms the amount of useable energy decreases and heat increases

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Primary structure

_____ : the amino acid linear order; "How the amino acids line up"

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secondary structure

_____ : the bending and twisting of linear order; formed because of hydrogen bonding

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tertiary structure

_____ : refers to the 3-D shape of proteins; most common structure

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enzymes

_____ : a biological catalyst

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catalyst

_____ : molecules that speed up chemical reactions

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Tertiary

Enzymes are proteins in their ______ strructure

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naturally/spontaneously

Enzymes only speed up chemical reactions that occur _________

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No

Are enzymes used up in a chemical reaction?

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substrates

binding of specific molecules called ______ to speed up the chemical reactions

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specific

Enzyme-substrate binding is ________

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activation energy

speed up chemical reactions by decreasing the _______ _______

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active site

_____ : pocket on enzymes where substrates bind to speed up chemical reactions

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allosteric regulation

_____ : enzyme is enhanced or suppressed by a small organic molecule presence

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competitive inhibition

_____ : two or more molecules that are similar in structure compete for the same active site of an enzyme

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Respiration

_____ : metabolic pathway that will harvest the energy stored in glucose under aerobic conditions

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C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy/heat

What is the chemical equation for respiration?

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mitochondria

Where does respiration occur?

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Endosymbiotic theory

This theory suggests that organelles such as the mitochondria and chloroplasts within the eukaryotic cell same abut as the result of endosymbiosis between prokaryotic cells and a host cell (eukaryotic cell)

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  • own DNA

  • own ribosomes

  • own plasma membrane

  • reproduce independently of cell

What are the pieces of evidence for the endosymbiotic theory?

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outer

_____ membrane of mitochondria: the outermost boundary of the mitochondria

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inner

_____ membrane of mitochondria : inner most membrane of the mitochondria

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cristae

_____ : folds and grooves of the inner membrane of the mitochondria

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matrix

_____ : enzyme-filled space of the inner membrane of the mitochondria

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Glycolysis, fermentation, and the Krebs Cycle

What are the three reactions of respiration?

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cytoplasm, not in the mitochondria

Where does Glycolysis occur?

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cytoplasm

Where does fermentation occur?

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in the mitochondria

where does the Krebs cycle occur?

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2 molecules of pyruvate

What is the product of glycolysis?

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alcohol or lactic acid

What is the product of fermentation?

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ATP (energy)

What is the product of the Krebs cycle?

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aeroibc

Kreb's cycle: aerobic or anarobic

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anaerobic

fermentation: aerobic or anarobic

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anaerobic

glycolysis: aerobic or anaerobic

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anaerobic

______ : oxygen is not present

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aerobic

____ : oxygen is present

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Endocytosis

_____ : net movement of material from the outside to the inside of the cell

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Phagocytosis

_____ : movement of large material to the inside of the cell

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Receptor-mediated:

_____ : movement of specific material to the inside of the cell

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Exocytosis

_____ : net movement of material from the inside to the outside of the cell

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quaternary structure

_____ : refers to many 3D protein shapes

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independent variable

_____ : object if interest, what is being tested in an experiment (what you think is the answer to your problem)

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dependent variable

_____ : measurable outcome, results.

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idea -> hypothesis -> theory -> law

What is the order from smallest to largest of scientific information?

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  1. every living thing will be made up of at least one cell

  2. Cells are the basic unit of life

  3. Cells arise from preexisting cells

what are the three parts of cell theory?

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Prokaryotic cells do not have a membrane-bound nucleus and eukaryotic cells do

What is the main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

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bacteria cells only.

What kind of cells are prokaryotic cells?

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central dogma theory

______ :theory stating that genetic information flows only in one direction, from DNA, to RNA, to protein, or RNA directly to protein

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Mitosis is asexual and occurs in body cells while Meiosis is sexual and occurs in egg/sperm cells.

What are the 2 main difference between Mitosis and Meiosis?

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  1. substrate

  2. active site

the _____ is often held in the ______ of an enzyme by hydrogen or Ionic bonds to speed up the chemical reactions.

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the energy released from one reaction is used to drive the other reaction

Catabolic and Anabolic pathways are often couples reactions in a cell because:

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  1. proteins 2)Tertiary

Enzymes are _____ with characteristic _____ shapes.

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exergonic reactions

_____ proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontanous

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  1. glycolysis

  2. cytoplasm

  3. pyruvate

______ occurring in the _____, breaks glucose into two molecules of _____.

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  1. glucose

  2. carbon dioxide

  3. energy

_____ + oxygen ---> _____ + water + _____

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  1. high

  2. low

Muscel cells use lactic acid fermentation when energy demand is _____ and oxygen supply is _____

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