Chapter Four Objectives

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Epithelial Tissue

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53 Terms

1

Epithelial Tissue

forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters

Location: lining of digestive tract organs and other hollow organs, skin surface (epidermis)

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2

Connective Tissue

supports, protects, binds other tissues together

Location: bones, tendons, fat and other soft padding tissue

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3

Nervous Tissue

internal communication

Location: brains, spinal cord, nerves

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4

Muscular Tissue

contracts to cause movement

Location: muscles attached to bones (skeletal), muscles of heart (cardiac), muscles of walls of hollow organs (smooth)

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5

Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue

connective tissue support and specialized contacts

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6

Specialized Contacts

binds adjacent cells, Tight Junctions, Desmosomes, Gap Junctions, Hemidesomosomes

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7

Connective tissue support

basement membrane, noncellular basal lamina, and

adhesive sheet

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8

Reticular lamina

network of collagen fibers, deep to basal lamina

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9

Six functions of Epithelial tissue

Protection, Absorption, Filtration, Excretion, Secretion, Sensory reception

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10

Stratified epithelia

two or more layers of cells

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11

Simple epithelia

single layer of cells

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12

Squamous

Flattened and scalelike

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13

Cuboidal

Boxlike

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14

Columnar

Tall; column shaped

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15

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Allows materials to pass by diffusion and filtration in sites Location: Lining of ventral body cavity (serosae).

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16

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Secretion and absorption

Location: Ovary surface.

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17

Simple Columnar Epithelium

Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; Ciliated type propels mucus

Location: gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands

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18

Pseudostratified Epithelium

Secrete substances, particularly mucus; Propulsion of mucus by ciliary action

Location: lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract

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19

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion

Location: linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina

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20

Transitional Epithelium

Stretches readily, permits stored urine to distend urinary organs

Location: Lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra

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21

Gland

One or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid called a secretion

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22

Exocrine Gland

secrete through ducts onto the surface of the gland

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23

Endocrine Gland

release hormones into the surrounding fluid

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24

Unicellular

The only important glands are mucous cells and goblet cells. Found in epithelial linings of intestinal and respiratory tracts. All produce mucin

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25

Multicellular

Are composed of a duct and a secretory unit. Unbranched or Branched

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26

Three types of secretion of multicellular glands

Merocrine, Apocrine, Holocrine

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27

Merocrine

most common secretes products by exocytosis

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28

Apocrine

accumulates products within but only apex ruptures

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29

Holocrine

accumulates products within, then ruptures, killing the cell

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30

Structural Elements of Connective Tissue

Ground substance, Fibers, Cells

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31

Ground substance

Unstructured material that fills space between cells

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32

Fibers

collagen, elastic, reticular

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Collagen fibers

Strongest and most abundant type

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34

Elastic fibers

Networks of long, thin, elastin fibers that allow for stretch and recoil

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35

Reticular fibers

Short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers. Branch, forming networks that offer more "give"

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36

Cells of Connective tissue

"Blasts" cells, Fat cells, White blood cells, Mast cells, Macrophages

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37

Areolar Loose Connective Tissue

Wraps and cushions organs, Plays important role in inflammation, Holds and conveys tissue fluid

Location: Surrounds capillaries.

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38

Adipose Loose Connective Tissue

Provides reserve food fuel, Insulates against heat loss, Supports and protects organs

Location: Under skin in subcutaneous tissue

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39

Reticular Loose Connective Tissue

supports free blood cells in lymph nodes, the spleen and bone marrow

Location: Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen)

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40

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles, Attaches bones to bones

Location: Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses.

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41

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

Withstands tension, Provides structural strength

Location: Dermis of the skin

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42

Elastic Dense Connective Tissue

Allows tissue to recoil after stretching

Location: Walls of large arteries

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43

Blood (Fluid Connective Tissue)

Transport respiratory gasses, nutrients, wastes, and other substances

Location: Contained within blood vessels.

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44

Skeletal muscle tissue

Found in skeletal muscle, Voluntary

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45

Cardiac muscle tissue

Found in walls of heart, Involuntary

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46

Smooth muscle tissue

Mainly in walls of hollow organs other than heart, Involuntary

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47

Main component of the nervous system

Brain, spinal cord, nerves. Regulates and controls body functions

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48

Cutaneous membranes

(the skin) covers the body surface

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49

Mucous membranes

lines body cavities that are open to the exterior

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50

Serous membranes

lines body cavities that are closed to the exterior

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51

Tissue repair involves

regeneration, fibrosis

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52

Regeneration

Same kind of tissue replaces destroyed tissue. Original function restored

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53

Fibrosis

Connective tissue replaces destroyed tissue. Original function lost

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