urinary system

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Health

12th

61 Terms

1

kidney

oval w medial indeption; L is slightly larger and higher than R; retroperitoneal (to the back)

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2

what is the kidney incased in?

fat

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3

ptosis

dropping of kidney due to low levels of fat

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4

hilum

medial concave notch (renal artery, renal vein, ureter)

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5

cortex

outer

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6

medulla

inner

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7

ureter

28 cm; 3 layers: mucous, muscular, fibrous

peristalsis propels urine to urinary bladder

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8

urinary bladder

behind symphysis pubis

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9

wall of bladder

smooth muscle (detrusor)

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10

urinary bladder is lined with?

transitional epithelium (rugae for distension)

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11

how many openings does the urinary bladder have?

2 for ureters (posterior) 1 for urethra

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12

functions of urinary bladder

reservoir for urine; expels urine

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13

micturation

urination; relax ext. sphincter and contract detrusor; 250 mL = distention and desire to void; incontinence (involuntary)

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14

renal pyramids

triangular wedges

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15

renal papilla

face hilum ( pt of pyramid)

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16

renal columns

cortex dips between pyramids

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17

calyx

papilla deliver waste (cup)

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18

renal pelvis

joining of calyces to form collection reservoir; narrow to form ureter

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19

how much blood flows kidneys per min

1200 mL

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20

blood vessels to kidneys

AB aorta-renal artery-interlobar artery-arcuate artery-interlobular artery-afferent arteriole-capillaries (glomerulus)-efferent arteriole-peritubular capillaries-venules-interlobular vein-arcuate vein-interlobar vein-renal vein-inferior vena cava

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21

female urethra

3 cm; posterior to symphysis pubis and anterior to vagina

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22

male urethra

20 cm; passes thru prostrate gland and penis

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23

bowman’s capsule

2 layers of epithelial cells (parietal = simple squamous and visceral = filtration slits

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24

glomerulus

network of capillaries

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25

proximal tube

microvilli to increase surface area (cortex)

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26

loop of henle

descends, turns, ascends (thicker wall)

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27

juxtamedullary vs cortical

J- loop of henle dips into medulla

C- stays in cortex

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28

distal tube

thick walls

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29

renal corpuscle is a:

collecting duct to pyramid to papilla to calyx

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30

reabsorption

passive and active transport

water, electrolytes, and nutrients into proximal tube (thin walls)

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31

descending limb

thin walls; water and urea

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32

ascending limb

thick walls

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33

distal and collecting tube

thick walls; impermeable to water

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34

ADH

secreted by post pituitary; more permeable in water

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35

hypertonic urine

dark in color

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36

hypotonic urine

light in color

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37

tubular secretion

K, H, NH3, Na

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38

functions of kidney

process blood plasma and excrete urine; excrete urea; regulate Na, K, Cl

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39

filtration of kidney

water and solutes from plasma across glomerulus/bowman’s capsule

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40

reabsorption of kidney

molecules move out of nephron and into the blood

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41

secretion of kidney

out of blood and into nephron

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42

filtration

physical process (renal corpuscle)

water and small molecules

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43

urinary

kidney

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44

integumentary

skin

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45

respiratory

lungs

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46

digestive

intestine

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47

urine composition

95% water

nitrogenous waste (urea, uric acid)

electrolytes (K, Na, Cl, NI 14)

toxins

pigments, food, drugs

hormones

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48

urochromes

yellow pigment from dead red blood cells

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49

stones are caused by

renal calculi

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50

gout

high levels of uric acid

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51

dialysis

artificial kidney

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52

glycosuria

sugar/glucose in urine

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53

hematuria

blood in urine

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54

incontinence

uncontrolled urination

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55

dysuria

difficult/painful urination

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56

pyuria

pus in urine

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57

polyuria

lots of urine

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58

oliguria

scant, small amounts of urine

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59

anuria

absence of urine

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60

retention

retaining urine in urinary bladder, kidneys work; detrusor doesn’t

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61

suppression

no production of urine, renal failure

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