Bio test vocab

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Organism

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44 Terms
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Organism

An individual living thing

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Population

A group of organisms that belong to the same species and live in the same area

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Community

Populations of living things in a particular area

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Ecosystem

All the biotic and abiotic factors in an area

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Biome

A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms

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Abiotic

Non-living things

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Biotic

Living things

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Food chain

A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

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Food web

A community of organisms where there are several connected food chains

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Producer

An organism that can make its own food.

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Consumer

Organisms that eats other organisms or organic matter

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Decomposer (One type of detritivore)

Organisms that break down waste/dead organisms

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Scavenger (Other type of detritivore)

Eats dead organisms

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Apex predator

Top predator in an ecosystem

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10% rule

10% of energy from an organism is transferred up the food chain

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Biomagnification/Bioaccumulation

Accumulation of pollutants at higher levels of a food chain

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Precipitation

The falling to earth of any form of water

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Percolation

Water moving through soil and rock due to gravity.

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Evaporation

Water changing into an atmospheric gas

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Transpiration

Evaporation of water from plants

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Absorption

Water taken in by a plant

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Combustion

Burning something

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Respiration

The release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by humans and animals; taking in oxygen too.

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Carbon sink

Storage space for carbon Ex: fossil fuels, coal, etc

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Nitrification

The process by which nitrites and nitrogen is produced by bacteria in the soil (nitrifying bacteria)

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Nitrogen fixation

Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia

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Dentrification

Conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas (dentrifying bacteria)

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Immigration

Migration to a new location

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Emigration

Migration from a location

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Type I

Low birth rate, low death rate until old age

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K-strategist (follows Type I)

Reproduce late in life; few offspring; care for offspring

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Type III

High birthrate, high death rate at early age

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R-strategist (follows Type III)

Reproduce early in life; many small unprotected offspring: no care for offspring

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Type II

Death rate is constant over organism's life span

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Exponential growth (J shaped graph)

Amount of organisms grows exponentially over time. (unlimited resources)

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Logistic growth (J and ~ shaped graph)

Amount of organisms grows exponentially until it hits carrying capacity. (limited resources)

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Population dispersion

Way in which individuals of a population are spread out over an area or volume (Clumped, uniform, random)

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Population density

Number of individuals per given area

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Limiting factor

Any biotic or abiotic factor that cause a decrease in population growth.

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Density dependent factors

Limiting factor that depends on population size

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Density independent factors

Limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size

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Green World Hypothesis

Herbivores consume relatively little plant mass because they are held in check by predators, parasites and disease.

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Keystone species

A species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem

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Tropic cascade

A single species can affect the well-being of a whole environment

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