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72 Terms

1

lineage

series of ancestor and descendant populations

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2

phylogeny

the evolutionary history of the lineage relationships

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3

phylogenetic tree

a diagrammatic reconstruction of phylogeny history

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4

phylogenetic trees are hypothesis of

all life forms, major evolutionary groups, small groups of closely related species, individuals, populations, genes

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5

phylogenetic tree structure

start with a specific species (represented by a line) speciation event causes the line to split (each species evolves independently)

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6

root of the tree

the common ancestor of all organisms in the tree (on the left hand side of the tree)

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7

nodes

indicate timing of splitting events nodes can be rotated and it doesn't change the tree. the vertical order doesn't matter/indicate something

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8

taxon

any group of species designated with a name

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9

clade

any taxon that consist of all the evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor

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10

evolution/descent with modification

modern day species are descended from ancestral species and that species change over time evolutionary relationships among species from the basis for biological classification as new species are discovered, phylogenetic analyze are revised

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11

homologous features

shared with two or more species inherited from a common ancestor can be any heritable traits from a common ancestor (DNA sequences, protein structures, anatomical structures, and behavioral patterns) each character of an organism evolves from one character state (the ancestral trait) to another character state (the derived trait)

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12

synapomorphies

shared derived traits, they provide evidence of the common ancestry of a group (most are homologous structures)

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13

convergent evolution

when superficially similar traits evolve independently in different lineages (analogue characters)

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14

evolutionary reversal

a character reverts from a derived state back to an ancestral state

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15

homoplastic traits/ homoplasies

similar traits gained (by convergent evolution) or lost (by evolutionary reversals) in separate lineages over time

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16

in group

the group of organisms of primary interest. the group of species that we are trying to understand their evolutionary relationship

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17

outgroup

species or groups known to be closely related to but phylogenetically outside of the group of interest. only one species makes up this group

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18

parsimony

the preferred explanation of observed data is the simplest explanation. in phylogenies the number of evolutionary changes that need to be assumed over all characters in all groups is minimized. the best hypothesis is the one that requires the fewest homoplasies.

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19

monophyletic groups

a taxon should contain an ancestor and all descendants, and no other organism. (a clade)

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20

polyphyletic

a group that does not include its common ancestor

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21

paraphyletic

a group that does not include all the descendants of a common ancestor

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22

molecular clock

uses the average rate at which a given gene or protein accumulates changes to gauge the time of divergence. must be calibrated using independent data- the fossil record, or biogeographic dates

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23

binomial nomenclature

gives every species a unique name consisting of two parts, the genus to which it belongs and the species name

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24

hierarchical system

families, orders, classes, phyla, kingdoms

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25

earths record is found in rocks

in sedimentary rock layers (strata). oldest layers are at the bottom, and successively higher strata are progressively young

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26

what has changes lines diversity

physical changes in the earth and its atmosphere. tectonic movements have shared the Earth's structure and influenced the environment

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27

oxygen in the earths atmosphere

earth's atmosphere didn't contain oxygen (was made of methane, hydrogen, ammonia) all forms of life ad anaerobic metabolism (3.5 BYA) many bacteria used hydrogen sulfide as a source of hydrogen ions

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28

the great oxygenation

2.5 - 1.8 BYA Cyanobacteria evolved about 2.5 BYA which had the ability to split water as a source of hydrogen ions for photosynthesis -> this released oxygen slow rise of oxygen levels (1.8 - 0.8 BYA) lots of tectonic movements

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29

slow rise of atmospheric oxygen

balance of photosynthesis and respiration organism could use water and separate the O2 from the H this increased the O2 in the atmosphere

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30

ozone layer

Ozone works as a shield to reduce the radiation on earth. made life on land more possible anaerobic organisms couldn't survive in O3 --> had to change their habitat to a lover oxygen level (the ocean) O2 allowed evolution of biochemical pathways that use oxygen organisms with aerobic metabolism replaced anaerobes on most of earth's environment

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31

rapid rise of O2 levels

(850-500 mya) rapid changes in climate due to tectonic shifts changes from shifting plates (climate change) changed the difference from oxygen produced and oxygen used balance of photosynthesis and respiration changed O2 production exceed O2 consumption

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32

highest O2 levels

320-275 mya evolution and diversification of large land plants and burial of organic matter. the start of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas --> carbon deep down from millions of years ago evolution of land plants phtosynthesisizing body size is limited because of O2

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33

rapid drop of O2 levels

250 mya volcanoes blocked sunlight, swans dried up, no more trees --> no production of O2, dropped O2 levels end the Permian about 96% of all multicellular species went extinct

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34

permian

massive volcanic eruption blocked sunlight an caused climate cooling

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35

Cambrian period

beginning of the Paleozoic era (the Phanerozoic eon) the Cambrian explosion was a rapid diversification of life, though the radiations began before the start of the Cambrian and lasted 60 million years many of the major animal groups represented by species alive today fist appeared during these evolutionary radiations

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36

ethology

the scientific study of the behavior of animals in their natural environments integrated discipline lab and field based focus of ethology: shaping behavior

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37

behavior

an evolutionarily adaptive trait

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38

Tinbergen's four questions

causation, development, function, evolution

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39

causation

what is the mechanism underlying the behavior? How can mechanisms be modified by learning? external and internal stimuli, hormones, molecular pathways individual scale

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40

developmental

what experiences are necessary for a behavior to be displayed? imprinting, learning, environmental effects, changes with age

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41

function

how does the behavior affect the animal's chances of survival and reproduction? value of the behavior terms of survival and/or reproduction

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42

evolution

how might have the behavior evolved? similarities to related species? phylogenetic history of the behavior individual scale

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43

proximate

immediate mechanisms that underlie behavior In the present

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44

ultimate

evolutionary processes that produced the behavior relation to fitness leading to his behavior how a trait changes in an organisms life time

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45

nervous system

in animals, the nervous system activates and coordinates behaviors the nervous system receives from the environment, integrates the information, and coordinate a response (the behavior)

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46

fixed action patterns

species-specific instinctive behaviors performed without learning or prior experience stereotypic: performed the same way each time --> looks the same and performs the same with each individual within that species not typically modified by learning typically elicited by a specific stimulus

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47

selective pressures can lead to changes in behavior

heritable variation in behavioral phenotypes combined with differential reproductive success

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48

behaviors evolve like another phenotypic trait

artificial selection for a behavior environment factors in behavioral selection differential reproductive success --> individuals with a trait have a high reproduction rate

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49

nature v nurture

how does genetics and environment effect behavior to what extent is behavior shared by genetic variation versus past experience, learning, or other developmental/enivronmental influences?

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50

biological determinism

an individual's behaviors are fixed by their genetic makeup only focuses on nature, no role of the environment

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51

how genes affect behavior

behavioral genetics multiple genes interact and influence behavior honey bee example: nurse bees behavior is all in the hive, taking care of the young. foraging adult bee has to lead the nest to get food. different genes are expressed--> shift in behavior there are changes in an organisms life span that can change their genotype --> changes phenotype

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52

DNA methylation and histone modification

can change gene expression without changing the underlying DNA sequences

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53

learned behavior during ones lifetime

conditioned reflex, imprinting, cognitive learning

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54

conditioned reflex

a simple behavior controlled by the nervous system can be modified by experience

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55

imprinting

occurs during a critical period of an animal's life forms attachment to parents inflexible once learned

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56

cognitive learning

problem solving based on acquired info

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57

navigation

moving towards a specific destination

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58

orientation

a postion or path in relation to an environment cue sun, stars, earths magnetic field, landmarks

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59

trail following

leaf cutter ants cut a piece off a left and bring it back to the nest. they will follow a trait made by a pheromone (chemical emitted into the environment that elicits specific responses from other members the species) trail following chemical

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60

path integration

the animal makes a cognitive map using distance and direction traveled, in order to return directly back to the start point. complex route to get food, staight line back

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61

migration

long distance navigation, possibly through unkown areas. use landmarks to migrate (sun, mountain, rivers, earths magnetic field can help animals orient)

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62

honeybee dance orientation

waggle dance bees communicate both direction and distance to food source via a "wage dance" the sun is used to orient the dance

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63

sociality

social behaviors are interactions between conspecifics (members of the same species) that affect the fitness of all interacting individuals. members of the same species interacting in a given time

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64

sociality contunum

almost all animals occasional have social interactions especially in the context of mating. social animals interact to where they are improving their fitness

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65

group living benefits

improved foraging efficiency. reduced risk of predation.

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66

group living cost

infraspecific completion, reduced resources availability, attract attention of predators, spread of disease.

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67

eusocial organisms

ants, bees, and wasp termites aphids naked mole rats cooperative care of the young, sterile "workers" one (or a few) reproductive females. overlapping generations, a mother and her adult offspring are alive at the same time.

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68

altruism

behavior that reduces the direct fitness of the individual but is beneficial to another individual or individuals intraspecific

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69

altruism evolves through kin selection

indirect fitness benefits to altruist result from increasing the success of genetically related individuals more likely to evolve when organisms live with close relatives the indirect fitness of protecting the colony by stinking the predator is increasing the fitness of the species

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70

inclusive fitness

indirect effects of the behavior on other individuals that may share (or not share) genes

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71

Hamilton's rule

relatedness proportion of shared genes times benefit to recipient how many offspring produced > cost to altrusit rB>C

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72

cost/benefits analysis of animal behavior

every animal has limited amount of time and energy available time/energy spent in one activity is not available for other activities any behavior has associated cost (and benefits) difficult to determine impact of all cost/benefits evolutionarily minimize cost while maximizing gains/ benefits--> increased survival or fitness

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