Topic 2 - Thermodynamics - Biology 241 - University of Calgary

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• Biochemical Reactions • Cells • Organisms • Ecosystems

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• Biochemical Reactions • Cells • Organisms • Ecosystems

What can systems be? (4)

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• No exchange of energy or matter with surroundings.

Isolated System

<p>Isolated System</p>
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• Exchanges energy with surroundings.

Closed System

<p>Closed System</p>
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• Exchanges energy and matter with surroundings.

Open System

<p>Open System</p>
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C) Open

Biological systems are...

A) Isolated B) Closed C) Open

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• Must absorb needed and remove unneeded molecules.

Why are biological systems open systems?

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• The ability to cause change.

Energy

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• Change that requires energy.

Work

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Any of these answers are correct: • DNA Replication • Protein Synthesis • Metabolism • Mobility • Reproduction • Transport • Cell Division

List three types of work that cells/organisms perform.

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• Stored energy of an object due to its position or chemical structure.

Potential Energy

<p>Potential Energy</p>
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• Energy of motion or change.

Kinetic Energy

<p>Kinetic Energy</p>
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B) High Potential Energy

A molecule with lots of non-polar covalent bonds has...

A) Low Potential Energy B) High Potential Energy

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• The arrangement of electrons in its bonds.

What changes the potential energy within a molecule?

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• Energy is neither created nor destroyed.

The First Law of Thermodynamics

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• Changes location or changes forms.

What happens to the energy within a system according to the first law of thermodynamics? (2)

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• Sum of potential energy and kinetic energy of a system.

Enthalpy

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Yes, due to the energy change in the system.

Does the enthalpy change when work occurs?

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• Delta H (∆H)

What is the symbol for change in enthalpy?

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• Exothermic

If heat is released, the ∆H is...

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• Endothermic

If heat is absorbed, the ∆H is...

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• Products have less enthalpy than reactants. • Heat released to surroundings.

What are the two characteristics of an exothermic reaction?

<p>What are the two characteristics of an exothermic reaction?</p>
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• Products have more enthalpy than the reactants. • System absorbs heat from surroundings.

What are the two characteristics of an endothermic reaction?

<p>What are the two characteristics of an endothermic reaction?</p>
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• A reaction that is able to occur under current conditions.

Spontaneous

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Yes.

Is an ice cube to liquid water a spontaneous reaction?

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No, since it requires sunlight to begin the process.

Is photosynthesis a spontaneous reaction?

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• Instantaneous

Spontaneous reactions are not...

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• Nonspontaneous

If a reaction is spontaneous, then it is ___________________ in the reversed direction.

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• A reaction that cannot occur under the current conditions.

Nonspontaneous

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No.

Is liquid water to an ice cube a spontaneous reaction?

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Yes.

Can exothermic and endothermic reactions both be spontaneous?

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• How dispersed the energy of the system and surroundings is.

Entropy

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• Delta S (∆S)

What is the symbol for change in entropy?

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• Positive

If energy has higher dispersion, then ∆S is...

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• Negative

If energy has a lower dispersion, then ∆S is...

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• The total entropy of the universe if always increasing.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

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• Spontaneous

Entropy determines if a reaction is...

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• ∆Stotal = ∆Ssystem + ∆Ssurroundings

What is the equation for total entropy?

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• Measure of energy in a system that is free to do work.

Free Energy

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• The amount of energy that was used to make the change.

The change in free energy in a reaction is measured as...

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• More

For work to occur, energy must be available to carry out the change and reactants must have ______ free energy than the products.

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• Delta G (∆G)

What is the symbol for free energy?

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• Positive

If energy is available, the change in free energy is...

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• Negative

If energy is not available, the change in free energy is...

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• Negative free energy. • Spontaneous.

What are the characteristics of exergonic reactions? (2)

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• ∆G = -T∆Stotal

What is the equation that relates free energy to the total entropy of a system and its surroundings?

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• Positive free energy change. • Nonspontaneous.

What are the characteristics of an endergonic reaction? (2)

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• Enough energy available to change the system and the total entropy of the universe increases.

What causes exergonic reactions?

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• Not enough energy to change the system, total entropy of the universe decreases.

What causes endergonic reactions?

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∆G = ∆H - T∆Ssystem

What is the equation that relates free energy, entropy, and enthalpy?

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• Exergonic

Are biological reactions exergonic or endergonic?

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• The rate of the forward reaction = the rate of the reverse reaction.

Chemical Equilibrium

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• The reverse reaction is spontaneous.

What does a positive tabulated standard free energy mean?

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∆G = ∆G° + RT(ln(product/reactant))

What is the equation that involves standard free energy?

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• Chemical reactions in the cells that change food into energy.

Metabolism

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• Breaking down of complex molecules.

Catabolism

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• Amino acids

If a protein undergoes catabolism, what is the product?

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• Building up of complex molecules.

Anabolism

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• Protein

If an amino acid undergoes anabolism, what is the product?

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• A series of connected reactions.

Biochemical Pathways

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• Biochemical Pathways

In cells, metabolic reactions are linked to...

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• Endergonic

Is anabolism endergonic or exergonic?

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• False, it is exergonic.

Catabolism is endergonic, true or false?

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• When the second reaction contains the first reactions product as a substrate.

Connected Reactions

<p>Connected Reactions</p>
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• Nitrogenous Base (Adenine) • Ribose (Sugar)

What is adenosine made up of?

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• Potential Energy

What type of energy does ATP store?

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• Negative compressed charges.

Where does the potential energy in ATP come from?

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• Reaction of the interaction of chemicals with water, leading to their decomposition.

Hydrolysis

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• A single reaction with two things happening, which occur at the same time and same place.

Coupled Reactions

<p>Coupled Reactions</p>
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• Coupled

What is the first reaction of glycolysis considered?

<p>What is the first reaction of glycolysis considered?</p>
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• No, since it only has one thing occurring.

Is the second reaction of glycolysis considered coupled?

<p>Is the second reaction of glycolysis considered coupled?</p>
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• Yes.

Is the third reaction of glycolysis a coupled reaction?

<p>Is the third reaction of glycolysis a coupled reaction?</p>
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