Chapter 5 APES

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Species richness

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32 Terms

1

Species richness

The number of species in a given area.

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2

Species evenness

The relative proportion of individuals within the different species in a given area.

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3

Phylogeny

The branching pattern of evolutionary relationships.

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4

Evolution

A change in the genetic composition of a population over time.

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5

Microevolution

Evolution below the species level.

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6

Macroevolution

Evolution that gives rise to new species, genera, families, classes, or phyla.

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7

Gene

A physical location on the chromosomes within each cell of an organism.

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8

Genotype

The complete set of genes in an individual.

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9

Phenotype

A set of traits expressed by an individual.

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10

Mutation

A random change in the genetic code produced by a mistake in the copying process.

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11

Recombination

The genetic process by which one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome during reproductive cell division.

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12

Evolution by artificial selection

The process in which humans determine which individuals breed, typically with a preconceived set of traits in mind.

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13

Evolution by natural selection

The process in which the environment determines which individuals survive and reproduce.

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14

Fitness

An individual’s ability to survive and reproduce.

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15

Adaptation

A trait that improves an individual’s fitness.

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16

Gene flow

The process by which individuals move from one population to another and thereby alter the genetic composition of both populations.

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17

Genetic drift

A change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating.

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18

Bottleneck effect

A reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size.

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19

Extinction

The death of the last member of a species.

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20

Founder effect

A change in the genetic composition of a population as a result of descending from a small number of colonizing individuals.

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21

Geographic isolation

Physical separation of a group of individuals from others of the same species.

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22

Allopatric speciation

The process of speciation that occurs with geographic isolation.

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23

Reproductive isolation

The result of two populations within a species evolving separately to the point that they can no longer interbreed and produce viable offspring.

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24

Sympatric speciation

The evolution of one species into two, without geographic isolation.

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25

Genetically modified organism (GMO)

An organism produced by copying genes from a species with a desirable trait and inserting them into another species.

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26

Range of tolerance

The limits to the abiotic conditions that a species can tolerate.

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27

Fundamental niche

The suite of abiotic conditions under which a species can survive, grow, and reproduce.

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28

Realized niche

The range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives.

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29

Distribution

Areas of the world in which a species lives.

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30

Niche generalist

A species that can live under a wide range of abiotic or biotic conditions.

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31

Niche specialist

A species that is specialized to live in a specific habitat or to feed on a small group of species.

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32

Mass extinction

A large extinction of species in a relatively short period of time.

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