French Revolution

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What is a Revolution?

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1

What is a Revolution?

Major Changes

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2

How did France change?

France will go from an absolute monarchy to a republic.

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3

What was France called before?

the Old Regime/Ancient Regime

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4

Who is Louis XV(15)’s grandfather?

Louis XIV(14)

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5

What was Louis XIV’s message to his grandson?

He told Louis XV to be a peaceful king

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6

What did Louis XV do that undid his grandfathers work?

Louis XV didn’t control the nobility and the control over the nobles goes away. The nobles get their power back.

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7

What did Louis XIV do?

Louis XIV tried to control the nobles and he gave the intendent jobs to the middle class. Louis XIV tried to control and limit the nobility.

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8

Was France powerful at this time?

Yes, France at this time was dominant. It was the center of Europe. Everyone was envious of France.

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9

Who was in the first estate?

the Roman Catholic Church clergy

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10

About how much percentage was the first estate compared to the population?

This estate was 1% of the population.

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11

How much land did the first estate control and own?

The first estate owned and controlled around 10% of the land in France.

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12

Who was in the second estate?

The rich nobles

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13

How much percent of the population was the second estate?

This estate was 2% of the population.

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14

How much land did the second estate own and control?

The second estate owned and controlled around 20% of the land in France.

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15

Were the first two estates powerful?

Yes

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16

Do the first two estates have to pay taxes?

No

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17

How did Louis XV make the power balance shift?

He gave the powers of the nobles back.

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18

Since they pay low taxes does this create a financial problem for France?

Yes

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19

Who was in the third estate?

This includes everyone else. Some rich people, middle-class people, and peasants are included in this estate.

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20

What is the percent of population in the third estate?

97%

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21

How much land does the third estate have?

About 70%

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22

Who is the bourgeoisie?

They are middle to upper-class people. They were doing good financially. They were bankers, lawyers, and business owners. The philosophes in France were the bourgeoisie.

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23

What did the colonists do in the American Revolution?

They didn’t want to be under a monarch, so what those colonists did, was a revolt.

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24

What did the people in France see during the American Revolution?

The people in France saw a group of colonists who didn’t want to be under a monarch.

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25

France played a huge role in ________?

the colonies

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26

Who was France’s enemy?

England

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27

Who did France help and how?

France will help the Americans because they don’t like the British. France will give a lot of resources and money to fight the British redcoats. The American Revolution bankrupts France. They get into a lot of debt.

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28

A lot of enlightenment thinkers were ________?

French

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29

The Americans used to listen to______?

John Locke

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30

Why did they rely on John Locke?

John Locke says that the government's power comes from the consent of the governed. He believes in the social contract. The government should only be powerful enough to protect natural rights. He says that if the government doesn’t do its job, the government can be dissolved. He doesn’t believe in divine right. He also believes in the right to revolution.

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31

The third estate will use ____ and ______ to figure out why they were treated poorly.

Logic and reason

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32

The way that the old Regime was set up, didn’t have _____. There was no structure. They thought that there should be equality. This encourages people to fix the government.

logic

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33

Who wanted to fix the government?

The people in France

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34

How does the American Revolution take a toll on France’s finances?

The American Revolution leads France to debt. France was also in a lot of wars and spent a lot of money. This debt piles up and puts France in a bad financial situation.

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35

How does bad weather take a toll on France’s finances?

Bad weather destroyed crops, so France couldn’t make money. Food wasn’t produced, so the price of food went up. The people needed food and many people couldn’t buy some because of the price.

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36

What was the main food in France?

The main food that was scarce was bread. Bread was in scarce supply and was super expensive. The people have to have food and France couldn’t buy it.

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37

How does the way France tax people create financial problems?

France was also taxing the third estate, while barely taxing the other estates. The third estate had little to no money so people couldn’t pay taxes. France wasn’t getting the money because they were taxing the people who didn’t have money. Taxation in France hinders the money that France gets and it also shows inequality because they were the only people paying taxes.

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38

Who were the monarchs at the time?

Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antonette

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39

How did the monarchs spend France’s money?

They lived in a huge palace and trying to upkeep it is expensive. By spending money on themselves, they are spending France's money. They would use France’s money to buy luxuries and things for themselves. The people in the third estate thought that it was unfair because they could buy everything and the people couldn’t buy anything.

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40

This makes everyone in France very ______.

angry

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41

What would Marie do when she was bored?

Marie would get bored and she wanted something different. She would sometimes want to go to places that are normal and “basic”. Marie would build something called the Peasant Cottage. She would live there sometimes because she wanted to feel basic and normal.

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42

Why did people in France get angry because of this?

People were angry because the monarchs were divorced from reality. They think the peasants and lower class don’t have it that bad, even though they have it worse than they interpret it

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43

Because of all of this, she earned the nickname _______.

“Madame Deficit”

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44

She would spend a lot of money on what?

She would spend a lot of money on fashion and gambling.

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45

Since she was ______ she was France’s enemy.

Austrian

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46

Who does Louis want to tax?

Louis wants to tax the nobility to get money.

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47

Louis comes up with this idea in the meeting of what?

When Louis XVI gets the idea, he is in the meeting of the Assembly of Notables.

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48

What is the Assembly of Notables?

The Assembly of Notables was a meeting with the representatives of the first and second estates only.

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49

What is their response due to the idea of taxation?

they say no to Louis XVI. The notable estates tell Louis no.

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50

At the Assembly of Notables they call another meeting, what is that meeting?

They decide to call the meeting of the Estates General.

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51

What was the role of the Estates General?

The role of this group was to give advice. The advice that comes out from the people is a common myth. This was wrong and they feel different that they are heard.

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52

How was voting organized in this group?

The 3 estates each had one vote. The privileged estates usually voted together so this was unfair to the third estate. The third estate sees that they all have the same voice.

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53

How was this unfair for the third estate?

Whatever was in the interest of the first estate, was also in the interest of the second estate, so they would vote together. This means that it would never be fair for the third estate. The voice of the First and Second estates was equal to the Third estate, which was unfair.

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54

Who is Jacques Necker?

Louis XVI’s Minister of Finance. He is from the third estate. He is the son of a banker.

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55

Why are the people happy when it comes to Jacques Necker?

The people are very upset that the voting is unfair, but they are happy that someone in the third estate was so high up in class.

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56

Who is Joseph Sieyes.

He was part of the first estate. He sees how messed up and unfair this is. He supports the third estate.

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57

What did Sieyes say at the meeting of the Estates General?

He gets up at the meeting at the Estates General, and he says a speech called, “What is the Third Estate?”. He says, “Up until now what is the third estate?” People say “nothing”. What do they demand? “To become something.”

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58

What was the third estates idea for voting?

hey wanted the delegates that make up each estate to get one vote. One of the proposals was to double the third. This means that the first estate gets 300 votes and the second estate gets 300 votes, and the third estate gets 600 votes.

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59

What does Louis like about this idea?

He likes that they can meet in one room, and he likes that they are together, but he doesn’t like how the delegates get a vote. This makes everyone very angry. The third estate realizes that this is pointless so, they break off.

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60

Since the third estate breaks off, they rename themselves as the _______.

National Assembly

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61

Why does Louis feel threatened?

Louis XVI starts to feel threatened by the third estate because they are doing their own thing. He will try to prevent the third estate from meeting alone, by locking the doors where they meet, so they will be forced to rejoin the estate general.

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62

Because Louis locked their meeting room, they went where?

They go to a tennis court and they see that this is perfect. Louis XVI’s plan of locking the door doesn’t work. At this point, the third estate has support from some members from the first and second estates. They swear an oath.

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63

The oath that they swear was called the?

Tennis court oath

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64

What did they promise to do when creating the oath?

They pledge to not stop meeting until they get a new constitution for France. This was a promise to change the French government. This made Louis XVI very threatened.

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65

This group was made to _______.

represent the people of France.

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66

What will Louis do since he feels threatened?

Louis is scared that this can go out of hand. He wants to make sure France is prepared if something bad happens. There is a huge increase of troops at Versailles. He will bring more troops just in case things get out of hand.

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67

Why are people scared?

Since he doesn’t explain the increase in troops, people make their own assumptions. The third estate is very scared because they think he brings the troops to destroy the third estate. He doesn’t tell people why there are troops.

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68

Who created the painting of the “Tennis Court Oath”?

Jacques Louis David

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69

What did he paint on purpose?

He painted one person each from the three estates shaking hands, which represents agreement. This was around 1789.

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70

Who did Louis fire?

Louis XVI fired Jacques Necker (the France Minister of Finance).

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71

Why did the people worry because he fired him?

He didn’t explain why he fired him. People in the third estate worry that he is about to kill them. The third estate needs weapons to defend itself. This ties in with the new guards that are coming there. This makes everyone worried.

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72

What was the beginning of the French Revolution?

The storming of the Bastille

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73

What was the Bastille?

The Bastille was an old prison. The Bastille was way more of a symbol than a prison. Very few people were there as actual prisoners. The Bastille symbolized the monarchy, the Old regime, and everything that the third estate thought was wrong. It was a storage facility for guns. The Bastille was well protected.

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74

How was the Bastille stormed?

July 14th, 1789, the Bastille was stormed. There were about 1000 people storming the Bastille when there were only 100 guards. The head of the Bastille tries to calm everyone down by telling them that the cannons aren’t loaded. The people said that that was great and they go and storm the Bastille. They cut the Bastille leader's head off and put it on a stick and they parade it around town. The people tear down the building.

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75

What was the “Great Fear”?

It is when the people were scared that they will be punished. They felt like reality set in. They thought that the government would punish them.

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76

Was the government going to do anything?

No, they don’t want to wage a war on its people. The people thought that they were in trouble. The people wanted to act because they felt fear that they were in trouble. This created many fights. This leads to the Women's Bread March.

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77

Why did the Women’s Bread March start?

Bad weather destroys wheat. Bread was in short supply. The price of bread went up.

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78

What was the Women’s Bread March?

These women were in Paris and they marched to Versailles. These women wanted to get food. These women were skilled. They demanded action from their king and queen. They are going to force the rulers to finally notice the problems in France. When the king and queen leave Versailles, they will never come back.

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79

Where does the current flag of France have it’s origin?

The current flag of France has its origin in the French Revolution. The red and blue on the sides symbolize Paris, and the white symbolizes the Bourbons.

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80

What is the current flag of France called?

The Tri-Color

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81

What does it mean if you wear these colors during this time?

Wearing these colors means that you support the revolution.

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82

What happened when the third estate split?

The Old Regime died

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83

Does the National Assembly stick to their promise?

Yes, they create the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. This was the new governing document that they promised in the Tennis Court Oath.

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84

Who was the main writer of this document?

Joseph Seiyes

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85

This document is similar to what American document?

The Declaration of Independence

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86

What is this document about?

This is about the power and rights the individual people get. This limits the powers of the monarch. This is a direct message to the monarch that they have less power.

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87

How did the Assembly take over the Catholic Church?

The Assembly took over the Catholic Church using the Civil Constitution of the Clergy law. How they took it over was controversial. This is when they take over the Catholic Church in France. The Assembly only took it over in France and nowhere else.

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88

Why did they want to take over the Catholic Church in France?

The Assembly is doing this because they wanted their land. The church had a lot of lands (10%) and a lot of money. The Assembly wants to get control of the land because if you control the land, you have access to a lot of money. This will help France. Catholics and French Peasants didn’t like this move.

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89

Why did some people not like this move?

They don’t like this because they think the government shouldn’t be a part of the Catholic Church, because the pope should be in charge instead.

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90

What did the monarch see from this?

This move shows the monarch (Louis XVI) how much power the Assembly has. This is going down the path Louis saw. Louis thinks he is the next victim.

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91

Because of all this chaos, what does Louis decide to do?

Louis XVI and his family decide that it is best to leave and go to Austria in 1791. They wanted to go to Austria because Marie’s family rules there, so they will be safe. He will get help from someone. Louis is wearing peasant clothes, to not draw attention. They make it to Varennes, which is on the border of France. Louis presents his paperwork and then asks him why he is leaving.

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92

Why does Louis not make it to Austria?

He is wondering why Louis is leaving because, at this time, France needs a strong leader. Louis is forced to come back to Paris. This shows the National Assembly, that the king has no desire in the French government. Louis trying to leave the country sends the message that he doesn’t want the responsibility of being king, which means he shouldn’t have the power.

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93

What will the National Assembly do now?

Now, the National Assembly will become the Legislative Assembly, and they will have a lot of power and responsibility. France is still a monarchy, but now a limited one. This extremely limits Louis’s power.

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94

What is the national Assembly’s new name?

The Legislative Assembly

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95

What powers does the Legislative Assembly have?

They have the power and responsibility to declare war and create laws. The king is still present, but his power is minimal. There was a big range of people. They tend to sit close to each other, meaning they are like-minded.

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96

What does Radical mean?

Radical means a big great change.

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97

Who are radicals?

If you are a radical, you are trying to make big changes.

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98

Who are Moderates?

people who were open to a little bit of change but not that much.

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99

Who are conservatives?

people who wanted little to no change.

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100

Who were Emigres?

These people move out of France. They are very conservative. They were very wealthy and they benefited from the Old Regime. They fled France because they wanted to find those Old Regime benefits elsewhere. They didn’t like change and they like the Old Regime.

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