Chapter 14: Some compounds with oxygen, sulfur or a halogen

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Phenol

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28 Terms

1

Phenol

________ is a compound that has an ¬OH group bonded directly to an aromatic, benzene- like ring, Ar¬OH.

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2

Alkoxide ion

________ is the anion resulting from the removal of the H from an alcohol, RO-

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3

Chirality

________ is having right- or left handedness with two different mirror image forms.

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4

Ether

________ is a compound that has an oxygen atom bonded to two organic groups, R¬O¬R.

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5

Aryl

________ halide A compound that has an aromatic group bonded to a halogen atom, Ar¬X.

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6

Alcohol

________ is a compound that has an ¬OH group bonded to a saturated, carbon atom, R¬OH.

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7

OH group

The ________ is lost from one carbon and an ¬H is lost from an adjacent carbon to yield an alkene product and water.

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8

Isomers

________ that have the same formula and whose atoms have the same connections but different spatial arrangements are known as stereoisomers.

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9

Stereochemistry

________ is the study of molecules that have the same overall connectivity of atoms but differ in how those atoms are arranged in three- dimensional space.

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10

Achiral

________ is the opposite of chiral, having superimposable mirror images and thus no right- or left- handedness.

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11

lowest index

The carbon bearing the ¬OH must be assigned the ________ number possible when numbering the chain.

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12

Enantiomers

________ (optical isomers) is the two mirror- image forms of a chiral molecule.

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13

Thiols

________ react with mild oxidizing agents, such as Br2 in water or even O2, to yield disulfides, RS¬SR.

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14

Configurations

________: Stereoisomers that can not be converted into one another by rotation around a single bond.

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15

carbon atom

A(n) ________ that is BOTH tetrahedral AND has four different groups attached is referred to as a chiral carbon atom, or a chiral center (or stereocenter)

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16

organic oxidation

A(n) ________ is one that increases the number of C¬O bonds and or decreases the number of C¬H bonds.

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17

organic reduction

A(n) ________ is one that decreases the number of C¬O bonds and or increases the number of C¬H bonds.

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18

cyclic alcohol

In a(n) ________, begin with the carbon that bears the ¬OH group and proceed in a direction that gives the other substituents the lowest possible numbers.

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19

Alkyl halide

________ is a compound that has an alkyl group bonded to a halogen atom, R¬X.

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20

Alcohols

________ undergo loss of water (dehydration) upon treatment with a strong acid catalyst; the reaction is typically driven to completion by heating.

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21

¬OH groups

When the two ________ are on adjacent carbons (commonly called vicinal diols), diols are often referred to by the common name glycols.

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22

Thiols

________ (R¬SH), also called thioalcohols or mercaptans, are sulfur analogs of alcohols (an analog is a molecule that has a structure very similar to that of another one in all but one or two key aspects)

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23

STEP 1

Name the parent compound

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24

STEP 2

Number the carbon atoms in the main chain

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25

STEP 3

Write the name, placing the number that locates the hydroxyl group immediately before the "ol" ending of the alcohol name

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26

Configurations

Stereoisomers that cannot be converted into one another by rotation around a single bond

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27

Chirality is having right

or left handedness with two different mirror image forms

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28

Achiral is the opposite of chiral, having superimposable mirror images and thus no right

or left-handedness

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