World History Honors - Abrahamic Religions

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Abraham

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Abraham

Considered the father of the three faiths of the Middle East: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

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Moses

Christian and Jewish prophet, who led the Hebrews out of Egypt. It is believed that God gave him the Ten Commandments, or Holy Law for his people to follow.

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King David

A skilled general, he is the David from the Bible that defeated Goliath. He began construction of the temple in Jerusalem.

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King Solomon

He was the son of David, and a great leader. Israel prospered during his reign, and the Temple of Solomon was completed.

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Torah

The holy book of the Jewish people. The Torah is made up of the first five books of the Old Testament.

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Dead Sea Scrolls

The oldest known Biblical texts on earth, which includes the Jewish Torah. They were found near the Dead Sea in what is today Israel and date from between 200 B.C. and A.D. 100.

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Masada

Ancient mountaintop fortress in Israel, that the Romans laid siege to in A.D. 73. In the end more than 900 Jewish zealot’s committed suicide rather than being taken prisoner by the Romans.

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Diaspora

Literally means Dispersion. Refers to the dispersal of the Jewish people from the Holy Land in the 1st century A.D. after the Jewish Wars with Rome.

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Wailing Wall

The last remaining wall of the Temple of Solomon, and the holiest place on Earth to the Jewish People.

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Jesus

Jewish teacher who Christians believe to be the Son of God and the savior mention in the Old Testament known as the Messiah

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Church of the Holy Sepulcher

Holiest site on earth to Christians, it is a church in Jerusalem built over the site where Jesus was suppose to have been crucified and buried.

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Disciples

The followers of Jesus.

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Gospels

Accounts of the life of Jesus that were recorded by some of his Disciples and their followers.

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New Testament

The Christian books of the Bible, written after the death of Jesus.

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Martyrs

People who suffer or die for their beliefs.

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Constantine

The 1st Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity.

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Pope

The leader of the Catholic Church, and the leader of all Christians until 1517.

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Nicene Creed –

Organized by the Emperor Constantine it summarized the official Church policy of the Christian faith, including Church holidays and what would be in the Christian Bible.

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Mecca

The holiest city in the Muslim world.

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Kaaba

The most sacred shrine of Islam, located in the Great Mosque in Mecca. Every day Muslims around the world pray to the Kaaba, according to Muslim belief it was built by the prophets Abraham and Ishmael.

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Muhammad

The holiest prophet and founder of Islam.

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Hejira

The migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E., this marked the first year of the Muslim calendar.

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Medina

Means “City of the Prophet”, and is the city that Muhammad went to during the Hejira; Muhammad is buried there in the Prophet’s Mosque today.

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Muslim

Name given to the people who are followers of the Islamic faith.

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Qur’an (Koran)

The holy book of the Muslim religion.

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Sahahada

Proclaim their belief in one God.

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Salah

Pray towards Mecca 5 times a day.

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Zakat

Charity to the poor and aged

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Sawm

Fasting during the month of Ramadan (Ramadan occurs at a different time each year. Muslims must not eat or drink during the daylight hours during Ramadan. It marks the month when God revealed his plans to Muhammad.).

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The Hajj

is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims must make at least once in their life.

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Caliph

Means “Successor to the Prophet”, and today it refers to the ruler ship of Islam, however Muslims worldwide cannot agree on who this should be.

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Ridda wars

Known also as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633 C.E., just after Muhammad died.

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Shi’a (Shiite)

More radical Muslim sect that believes that only a descendant of Muhammad can become Caliph.

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Sunni

Sect of the Muslim religion that believes any devote Muslim can become the Caliph, they make up 90% of the Muslim population in the world today.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The second Islamic caliphate, which was founded by Mu’awiyah in Arabia after the Prophet Muhammad's death. The Umayyads ruled the Islamic world from Damascus between 661 and 750 C.E.

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Dhimmi (People of the Book)

Term used to refer to non-Muslims living in Muslim-controlled territories. These people were generally Christians and Jews and could worship freely in exchange for paying a tax.

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Moors

Muslims who conquered and made southern Spain their home in 711 C.E., they ruled the region until 1492 C.E. when the Spanish expelled them.

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Battle of Tours

Battle that occurred in 732 C.E. in France between the Moors (Muslim) and the Franks (Christian), where Muslim expansion in Europe was stopped for good.

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Charles Martel

(The Hammer) King of the Franks who stopped the Muslim expansion in Europe at the Battle of Tours.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The third of the Islamic caliphates the Abbasid caliphate was founded by the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's youngest uncle. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs from 750 – 1258 C.E., who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate.

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Mansa Musa

Ruler of the Mali Empire from 1312 – 1337 C.E. A Muslim, he brought the Mali Empire to its greatest height. During his reign Timbuktu became a center of Muslim culture and scholarship. His pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324 – 1325 C.E. brought Mali fame throughout the world. The emperor traveled with an immense entourage, his gifts of gold in Cairo were so lavish that the metal was devalued in Egypt.

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Kaaba

The Kaaba is a brick building that is covered with a sacred cloth

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