Chem1100 Exam 4- Jennifer Kist

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What is the weakest intermolecular force?

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1

What is the weakest intermolecular force?

Dispersion forces

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What are dispersion forces?

Intermolecular force acting between atoms and molecules that are normally electrically symmetric

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3

What are dipole forces?

Attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule

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4

What kind of molecules present dipole forces?

Polar molecules

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5

Structure of soap (nonpolar and polar ends); how does it work?

The soap molecule has two different ends, one that is hydrophilic (polar head) that binds with water and the other that is hydrophobic (non-polar hydrocarbon tail) that binds with grease and oil.

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6

What is hydrogen bonding?

A hydrogen bond is an attraction between two atoms that already participate in other chemical bonds.

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High Vapor Pressure

A liquid with weak intermolecular forces evaporates more easily and has a high vapor pressure.

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Low Vapor Pressure

A liquid with stronger intermolecular forces does not evaporate easily and thus has a lower vapor pressure.

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9

HVP Examples

Water, Propanol, Ethanol, Propane, Carbon Dioxide etc.

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10

LVP Examples

Acetone and Sodium Hydroxide

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11

Define solution

a liquid mixture in which the minor component (the solute) is uniformly distributed within the major component (the solvent)

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12

Solute

the minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.

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Solvent

able to dissolve other substances.

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Properties of water

-Water is polar -Water is an excellent solvent -Water has high heat capacity -Water has high heat of vaporization -Water has cohesive and adhesive properties -Water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid

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15

What are some ways to treat hard water?

Vinegar, Lower Water Temp, Rinse Aid, Appliance Cleaners, Salt Water Free Conditioner.

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16

What do acids release?

Protons (H+)

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properties of acids

Acids are ionic compounds that, when dissolved in water, produce positive hydrogen ions ( H+) When dissolved in water, acids are sour in taste, conduct electricity and react with metals to produce hydrogen gas. Certain indicator compounds may be used to detect acids, such as litmus.

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18

What color does litmus paper turn when it's in the presence of an acid?

Red

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What color does litmus paper turn when it's in the presence of an base?

Blue

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properties of bases

-Bases change the color of litmus from red to blue. -They are bitter in taste. -Bases lose their basicity when mixed with acids. -Bases react with acids to form salt and water. -They can conduct electricity. -Bases feel slippery or soapy. -Some bases are great conductors of electricity.

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Bases Common Formula

OH (Hydroxide)

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22

Does cocaine act as an acid or a base?

weak base

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23

Forms of cocaine

Crack Cocaine, Freebase Cocaine, Cocaine Hydrochloride, and Cocaine

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24

Definition of Arrhenius acid

Arrhenius acid- The chemical compound that gives H+ in presence of water named as acid according to Arrhenius. Example- H2O,HCl,H2SO4.

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Definition of Arrhenius base

An Arrhenius base is a compound that increases the OH − ion concentration in aqueous solution.

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Definition of Bronsted-Lowry acid

Substance which donates an H+ ion or a proton and forms its conjugate base

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Definition of Bronsted-Lowry base

any species that is capable of accepting a proton

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Strong Acids

HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4

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properties of strong acids

A strong acid is an acid which dissociates completely in water

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properties of strong base

Strong bases are vigorous proton acceptors, dissociates into ions

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Properties of weak acids

A weak acid is an acid that does not produce many hydrogen ions (H+) when it is in an aqueous solution. Doesn't Dissociate

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Properties of weak bases

A weak base is a base that, upon dissolution in water, does not dissociate completely

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pH concentration scale

Below 7.0 Acidic, Above 7.0 Base

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34

what is the acid responsible for the sourness of lemons and other citrus fruits?

Citric Acid

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35

what is the acid responsible for the tartness of vinegar and is employed in bread to make sourdough?

Acetic Acid

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common bases

sodium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and potassium oxide

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common acids

Hydrochloric Acid. Sulfuric Acid. Nitric Acid. Carbonic Acid. Formic Acid. Acetic Acid. Citric Acid. Acetylsalicylic Acid.

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38

which bases make up antacids?

magnesium hydroxide and/or aluminum hydroxide

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39

What bases are in household cleaning products?

Common bases used in cleaning products include caustic soda, lye, and sodium silicate.

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40

What acids and bases are in baking powder? How do they work?

Function. Baking powder contains sodium bicarbonate as the base, cream of tartar as the acid, and cornstarch. Because the base and acid react immediately upon the addition of water, cornstarch is added to absorb the moisture and prevent premature activity.

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41

What is incorporated into bread as the leavening agent?

Yeast eats sugar and converts it into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. The ethyl alcohol evaporates and the CO2 expands to give light, fluffy bread

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What is oxidation?

Loss of electrons

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43

What is reduction?

Gain of electrons

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44

What is the reducing agent?

reducing agent is a chemical species that "donates" an electron to an electron recipient.

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45

what is the oxidizing agent?

An oxidizing agent is a substance in a redox chemical reaction that gains or "accepts"/"receives" an electron from a reducing agent.

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46

What is the most common oxidizing agent?

Oxygen (O2)

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What are some other oxidizing agents?

Ozone (O3) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other inorganic peroxides, Fenton's reagent. Fluorine (F2), chlorine (Cl2), and other halogens. Nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrate compounds such as potassium nitrate (KNO3), the oxidizer in black powder. Potassium chlorate (KClO3)

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48

What is the most common reducing agent?

Metals, H2 is common halogen oxidizing agent

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49

Other reducing agents?

metals potassium, calcium, barium, sodium and magnesium, and also compounds that contain the hydride H− ion

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Oxidation

occurs at the anode (-)

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Reduction

occurs at the cathode (+)

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52

Electrons travel from the _____ to the _____.

negative to positive terminal

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53

What are free radicals?

A type of unstable molecule that is made during normal cell metabolism

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54

What is the "happy" hormone?

Serotonin

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55

What is the most popular drug in the world?

asprin

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56

What does aspirin do?

relieve pain and reduce the risk of serious problems like heart attacks and strokes

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analgesic

acting to relieve pain

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antipyretic

used to prevent or reduce fever

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anti-inflammatory

reduces inflammation or swelling

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What do prostaglandins do?

hormone-like substances that affect several bodily functions, including inflammation, pain and uterine contractions.

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What do histamines do?

It stimulates gastric acid secretion, plays a role in inflammation, dilates blood vessels, affects muscle contractions in the intestines and lungs and affects your heart rate.

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What are some aspirin substitutes?

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Ibuprofen (Advil) Naproxen (Aleve)

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63

What are antibiotics used to treat?

Bacteria Fighters

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64

Know the three different categories of antibiotics

Penicillin's - for example, phenoxymethylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and amoxicillin. Cephalosporins - for example, cefaclor, cefadroxil and cefalexin. Tetracyclines - for example, tetracycline, doxycycline and lymecycline.

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How does penicillin and cephalosporin work?

bactericidal (kill bacteria) and work in a similar way to penicillin's. They bind to and block the activity of enzymes responsible for making peptidoglycan, an important component of the bacterial cell wall.

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What are antiviral drugs used to treat?

Antiviral drugs are a type of medication used specifically for treating viral infections.

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67

The difference between nucleotides and nucleosides?

Nucleosides contain only sugar and a base whereas Nucleotides contain sugar, base and a phosphate group as well.

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Examples of RTIs

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) include the common cold, laryngitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, acute rhinitis, acute rhinosinusitis and acute otitis media. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) include acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia and tracheitis.

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How do RTIs work?

You get an upper respiratory infection when a virus (or bacteria) enters your respiratory system.

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70

Protease inhibitors (Ritonavir) and proteases...what do they do?

‌Protease inhibitors, which figure among the key drugs used to treat HIV, work by binding to proteolytic enzymes (proteases). That blocks their ability to function. Protease inhibitors don't cure HIV. But by blocking proteases, they can stop HIV from reproducing itself.

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Integrase inhibitors (Raltegravir) and integrase...what do they do?

Raltegravir is used along with other medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults and children who weigh at least 4.5 lbs. (2 kg). Raltegravir is in a class of medications called HIV integrase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the amount of HIV in the blood.

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72

Examples of steroids and their characteristics

tablets, syrups and liquids - such as prednisolone. inhalers - such as beclometasone and fluticasone. nasal sprays - such as beclometasone and fluticasone. injections (given into joints, muscles or blood vessels) - such as methylprednisolone. creams, lotions and gels - such as hydrocortisone skin cream.

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73

Examples of adrenocortical steroids and how they work

corticotropin. -releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), is a peptide hormone that activates the synthesis and release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. In this way, CRH affects our response to stress, addiction and depression, amongst others.

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glucocorticoids.

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mineralocorticoids.

-Mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, promote sodium reabsorption in transporting epithelia of the kidneys, salivary glands, and large intestine. Sodium reabsorption is followed by passive reabsorption of water.

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What do anabolic steroids do?

Anabolic steroids stimulate muscle tissue to grow and "bulk up" in response to training by mimicking the effect of naturally produced testosterone on the body.

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77

Cancer...what do most anticancer chemicals target?

Rapidly dividing cells

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78

What are alkylating agents?

The alkylating agents are compounds that react with electron-rich atoms in biologic molecules to form covalent bonds. Ex. Altretamine. Bendamustine. Busulfan. Carboplatin. Carmustine. Chlorambucil. Cisplatin. Cyclophosphamide.

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79

How do antimetabolites work?

Antimetabolites interfere with DNA and RNA synthesis by acting as false metabolites, which are incorporated into the DNA strand or block essential enzymes, so that DNA synthesis is prevented. Most agents are cell cycle phase specific for S phase. Ex. Azacitidine. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) Capecitabine (Xeloda) Cladribine. Clofarabine. Cytarabine (Ara-C) Decitabine.

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80

How do topoisomerase inhibitors work?

Topoisomerase inhibitors (TI) can inhibit cell proliferation by preventing DNA replication, stimulating DNA damage and inducing cell cycle arrest.

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81

Examples of depressants

Valium®, Xanax®, Halcion®, Ativan®, Klonopin®, and Restoril®.

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What are antagonists?

substance that stops the action or effect of another substance

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Examples of narcotics

opium, codeine, heroin, demerol, darvon, morphine, methadone, Vicodin, and oxycontin.

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84

Examples of opioid antagonists

naltrexone and naloxone

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Humans produce their own opioid compounds called what?

Endorphins

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86

Stimulants: how do they work and examples

Stimulants are a class of drugs that speed up messages travelling between the brain and body. They can make a person feel more awake, alert, confident or energetic. Stimulants include caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines and cocaine.

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legal stimulants

Caffeine and nicotine

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Examples of halucinogens

psilocybin, LSD, and mescaline

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89

Examples of SSRIs and what does SSRI stand for?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. They can ease symptoms of moderate to severe depression, are relatively safe and typically cause fewer side effects than other types of antidepressants do. Ex. Fluoxetine. Citalopram. Sertraline. Paroxetine. Escitalopram.

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