Research Exam 1

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Applicability

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118 Terms
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Applicability

degree to which research evidence can be applied to individuals, small groups of individuals, or local contexts

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Assumption

principle that is accepted as being true based on logic or reason, without proof

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Cause-probing Research

research designed to illuminate the underlying causes of phenomena

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Clinical Nursing Research

research designed to guide nursing practice and to improve the health and quality of life of nurses' clients

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Clinical significance

practical importance of research results in terms of whether they have genuine, palpable effects on the daily lives of patients or on the health care decisions made on their behalf

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Constructivist Paradigm

there are multiple interpretations of reality, and the goal of research is to understand how individuals construct reality within their context; associated with qualitative research

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Empirical Evidence

evidence that is rooted in objective reality and gathered through the senses rather than through personal beliefs, quantitative

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Evidence-based Practice (EBP)

practice that involves making clinical decisions based on clinical judgment, patient preferences, and on the best available evidence, usually evidence from disciplined research

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Evidence Hierarchy

ranked arrangement of the strength of research evidence based on the rigor of the method that produced it; tradition evidence hierarchies are appropriate primarily for cause-probing research

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Generalizability

ability to generalize research findings to individuals who did not take part in the study

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Journal Club

group that meets in clinical contexts to discuss and critically appraise research articles published in journals

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Level of Evidence Scale

rank orders evidence for cause-probing questions in terms of risk of bias, based on evidence hierarchies; Level I evidence is typically systematic review of randomized controlled trials

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Meta-agression

approach to the synthesis of qualitative evidence in which findings are categorized and summarized rather than transformed, as in a metasynthesis

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Meta-analysis

technique for quantitatively integrating the results of multiple studies addressing the same or highly similar research question

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Metasynthesis

interpretive translation of evidence produced by systematically integrating findings from multiple qualitative studies

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Mixed Methods Research

research in which both qualitative and quantitative data are collected and analyzed to address different but related questions

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Mixed Studies Review

systematic review that integrates and synthesizes findings from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies on a topic

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Nursing Research

systematic inquiry designed to develop evidence about issues of importance to nurses and their clients

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Paradigm

worldview, a general perspective on the world's complexities

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Patient Centeredness

focus, in both health care and in research, on individuals patients' needs and values, including involving patients in care decisions and research priorities

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PICO format

framework for asking well-worded questions and for searching for evidence, where P=population, I=intervention, C=comparison, and O=outcome

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Positivist Paradigm

paradigm underlying the traditional scientific approach, which assumes that there is and orderly reality that can be objectively studied; often associated with quantitative research

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Primary Study

in a systematic review, an original study whose findings are the data in the review

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Qualitative Research

investigation of phenomena, typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion, through the collection of rich narrative materials using a flexible research design

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Quantitative Research

investigation of phenomena that lend themselves to precise measurement and quantification, often involving a rigorous and controlled design and statistical analysis of data

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Research

systematic inquiry that relies on disciplined methods to answer questions and solve preoblems

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Research Methods

techniques researchers use to structure a study and to gather and analyze relevant information

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Scientific Method

set of orderly, systematic, controlled procedures for acquiring dependable, empirical, and typically quantitative, information; the methodological approach associated with the positivist paradigm

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Systematic Review

methodical, scholarly inquiry that summarizes and evaluates current evidence on a research question

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Associative Relationship

association between two variables that cannot be described as casual

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Cause and Effect (casual) relationship

relationship between two variables wherein the presence or value of one variable (the cause) determines the presence or value of the other (the effect)

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Clinical Trial

study designed to assess the safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of a new clinical intervention, often involving several phases

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Concept

abstraction based on observation or self-reporting of behaviors or characteristics

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Conceptual Definition

abstract or theoretical meaning of a concept of interest

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Construct

abstraction or concept that is invented (constructed) by researchers based on inferences from human behavior or human traits

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Data

pieces of information obtained in a study

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Dependent Variabel

variable hypothesized to depend on or be caused by the independent variable (what is being measured)

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Emergent Design

design that unfolds in the course of a qualitative study as the researcher makes ongoing design decisions reflecting what has already been learned

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Ethnography

branch of human inquiry, associated with anthropology, focuses on the culture of a group of people, with an effort to understand the worldview and customs of those under study

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Experimental Research

research using a design in which the researcher controls (manipulates) the independent variable by randomly assigning people to different treatment groups; randomized controlled trials use experimental designs

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Gaining Entree

process of gaining access to study participants through the cooperation of key gatekeepers in a selected community or site

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Grounded Theory

approach to collecting and analyzing qualitative data that aims to develop theories about social psychological processes grounded in real-world observations

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Hypothesis

statement of predicted relationships between variables

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Independent Variable

variable that is believed to cause or influence the dependent variable, in experimental research, the manipulated variable; the independent variable is both the I and C in PICO, what's being changed

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Informant

person who provides information to researchers about a phenomenon under study; a term used mostly in qualitative studies

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Intervention Protocol

specification of what the intervention and alternative (control) treatment conditions are, how they should be administered and who should administer them

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Literature Review

summary of research on a topic, often prepared to put a research problem in context or to summarize existing evidence; typically less rigorously conducted that a systematic review

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Nonexperimental Research

studies in which the researcher collects data without introducing an intervention; also called observational research

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Observational Study

study that does not involve an intervention, nonexperimental research in which phenomena are merely observed

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Operational Definition

definition of a concept or variable in terms of the procedures by which it is to be measured

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Outcome Variable

term often used to refer to the dependent variable, the outcome (endpoint) of interest, the O in PICO

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Phenomenology

qualitative research tradition, with roots in philosophy and psychology, that focuses on the lived experience of humans

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Population

entire set of individuals or objects having some common characteristics, P in PICO

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Qualitative Data

information in narrative (nonnumeric) form, such as the information provided in an unstructured interview

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Qualitative Descriptive Research

qualitative studies that yield rich descriptions of phenomena but that are no embedded in a qualitative tradition such as phenomenology

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Quantitative Data

information collected in a quantified (numeric) form

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Relationship

bond or connection between two or more variables

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Research Design

overall plan for addressing a research question, including strategies for enhancing the study's integrity

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Sample

subset of a population comprising those selected to participate in a study

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Saturation

collection of qualitative data to the point where a sense of closure is attained because new data yield redundant information

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Statistical Analysis

organization and analysis of quantitative data using statistical procedures, including both descriptive and inferential statistics

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Subject

an individual who participates and provides data in a study; used in quantitative research

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Theme

recurring regularity emerging from an analysis of qualitative data

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Theory

explanation of some aspect of reality

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Variable

attribute that varies, take on different values

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Abstract

brief description of the study placed at the beginning of the article

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Bias

any influence that distorts the results of a study and undermines validity or trustworthiness

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Blinding

used in some quantitative studies to prevent biases stemming from people's awareness

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Confounding Variable

variable that is extraneous to the research question and that confounds the relationship between the independent and dependent variables

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Credibility

criterion for evaluating trustworthiness in qualitative studies, referring to confidence in the truth of the data

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Critical Appraisal

objective assessment of a study's strengths, limitations, and relevance, often to reach a conclusion about whether its evidence can be applied to practice

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Findings

results of the analysis of research data

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IMRAD format

Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion

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Inference

conclusion drawn from the study evidence using logical reasoning and taking into account the methods used to generate that evidence

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Journal Article

descriptions of studies publishes in professional journals

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Level of significance

index of how probable it is that the findings are reliable

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p value

probability that the obtained results are due to chance

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Placebo

sham or pseudo intervention, sometimes used as a control group condition

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Randomness

having certain feature of the study established by chance rather than by researcher preference

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Reflexivity

process of reflecting critically on the self and of analyzing and noting personal values and beliefs that could affect data collection and interpretation

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Reliability

accuracy and consistency of information obtained in a study

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Research Control

holding constant influences on the outcome so that the relationship between the independent and dependent variables can be understood

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Scientific Merit

degree to which a study is methodologically and conceptually sound

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Statistical Significance

the findings are probably true and replicable

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