forensic molecular biology exam 1

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law enforcement, scientific analysis, legal proceeding

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Biology

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1

law enforcement, scientific analysis, legal proceeding

the three components of the criminal justice system

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2

1986

when was DNA first used to solve a crime?

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3

the innocence project

an organization staffed by lawyers and law students who reexamine cases using post-conviction DNA testing to possibly exonerate wrongly accused suspects

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4

identical twins

the exception to every individual having a unique genome

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5

false

true or false: DNA testing looks at genes

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6

biology, technology, genetics

the three steps in DNA sample processing

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7

reference sample

required for DNA testing to be able to identify a suspect

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8

DNA

an essential component of all living matter and a basic material in the chromosomes of the cell nucleus, containing all the genetic code and hereditary pattern

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9

make copies of itself

the purpose of DNA is to ________ and carry instructions on how to make proteins

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10

Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid

DNA stands for...

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11

nucleotides

nucleic acids are composed of _________

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12

sugar, nitrogen base, phosphate

the three components of a nucleotide

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13

ribose

the sugar in RNA

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14

deoxyribose

the sugar in DNA

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15

carbon 1 of sugar

nitrogenous bases form a bond with ....

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16

2

purines have ____ ring(s)

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17

adenine and guanine

the two purine bases

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18

1

pyrimidines have ____ ring(s)

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19

cytosine, thymine, uracil

the three pyrimidine bases

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20

double helix

the secondary structure of DNA

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21

hydrogen bonds

the two chains of DNA are held together with ....

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22

anti-parallel

the two strands of DNA are _______, meaning the run in opposite directions

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23

nucleosomes

the basic subunit of chromatin, consisting of 200 bp of DNA wrapped around an octamer of histone proteins

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24

chromatin

the complex of DNA and proteins in the nucleus of a cell in interphase

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25

histones

DNA binding proteins that help compact and fold DNA into chromosomes

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26

genes

segments of DNA molecules that control the production of different proteins in an organism

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27

genome

all of the genetic material in an organism

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28

exon

segment of a gene that is represented in the final mRNA product and expressed as a protein

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29

introns

non-coding DNA which separates neighboring exons in a gene

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30

introns

do we look at introns or exxons in forensics?

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31

transcription

begins when RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region of a strand of DNA and adds complementary ribonucleotides to a chain, creating a single stranded RNA

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32

codon

the three nucleotide sequence on mRNA

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33

amino acid

each codon on mRNA codes for a(n)...

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34

ribosomes

translation occurs on the _______

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35

anticodon

the nucleotide triplet at on end of the tRNA that is complementary to a mRNA codon

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36

hybridization

the binding or reassociation of complementary strands of nucleic acids

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37

locus

the chromosomal position or location of a gene sequence

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38

sequence polymorphism

a type of polymorphism where one or more nucleotides vary within a sequence or length of DNA

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39

length polymorphism

a type of polymorphism where the sequence of the DNA doesn't vary, but the number of times it's repeated does

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40

power of discrimination

the ability of a forensic DNA technique to discern the difference between individuals

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41

genetics

the study of the pattern of inheritance

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42

populations

groups of individuals residing in a given area at a given time, often sharing a common ancestry

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43

population genetics

the study of genetic diversity in populations and how it changes over time

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44

law of segregation

states that chromosome pairs separate during meiosis so that sex cells are only haploid and possess a single copy of each chromosome

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45

law of independent assortment

states that different segregating gene pairs behave independently of one another due to recombination

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46

recombination

the process of exchanging DNA between homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis

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47

linkage

the proximity of two or more markers on a chromosome; the closer they are together, the more likely they are to be inherited together

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48

linkage equilibrium

the condition among alleles at different loci such that any allele combination in a gamete occurs as the product of the frequencies of each allele at its own locus

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49

linkage disequilibrium

the condition among alleles at different loci such that any allelic combination in a gamete do not occur according to the product rule of probabilty

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50

restriction fragment length polymorphism

RFLP stands for...

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51

variable number tandem repeat

VNTR stands for...

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52

RFLP

an analysis where DNA fragments are separated by their length using gel electrophoresis

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53

nuclease

an enzyme that degrades nucleic acids and DNA

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54

micrococcal

type of nuclease that can only cleave DNA that is not protected by proteins. ex.) linker DNA between histones

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55

endonuclease

type of nuclease that can only cleave DNA within a chain

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56

exonuclease

type of nuclease that can only cleave DNA on the end of a chain

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57

restriction endonucleases

restriction enzymes are also called...

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58

restriction enzyme

recognizes specific DNA sequences and cleaves both strands of DNA at sites internal to the molecule

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59

palindromes

restriction enzymes recognize _________, or sequences that are the same on both antiparallel strands of DNA

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60

restriction site

the actual bonds within the recognition site that get cleaved by the restriction enzyme

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61

recognition site

the specific 4-8 bp sequence that a restriction enzyme recognizes

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62

blunt ends

DNA that has been cleaved in a double stranded manner at the cut site

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63

sticky ends

DNA that has been cleaves with one or more unbound nucleotides at the cut site

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64

digestion

cutting high molecular weight DNA with a restriction enzyme

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65

partial digest

when the restriction enzyme cuts DNA at some sites, but not all of the sites it's supposed to cut

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66

electrophoresis

separating DNA or proteins based upon size using an electric current

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67

southern blot

the transfer of DNA from an agarose gel to a nylon membrane

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68

denaturation

the process of separating complementary strands of the double helix into two single strands

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69

probe

short single stranded DNA sequence that is complementary to an area of DNA being examined

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70

prehybridization

blocking areas of the membrane where DNA is not bound so that the probe will not bind to the membrane

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71

stringency washes

washes away unbound probe and non-specifically bound probes, being struct with the hybrid that's permitted to form

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72

recombinant dna

cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism

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73

transformation

the genetic alteration of a bacterial cell resulting from the transfer of foreign DNA

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74

cloning vector

a plasmid or phage that is used to carry inserted foreign DNA for the purposes of producing more material or protein product

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75

plasmid

a linear or circular double-stranded DNA that is capable of replicating independent of the chromosomal DNA

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76

DNA ligase

an enzyme that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond

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77

polymarker DQ alpha

PM/DQA stands for...

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78

reverse dot plot

when the probe is bound to the membrane and the sample DNA is washed over the membrane, rather than vice versa

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