H Bio Unit 5

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<p>cuticle</p>

cuticle

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<p>cuticle</p>
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<p>cuticle</p>

cuticle

<p>waxy layer for protection</p>

waxy layer for protection

<p>waxy layer for protection</p>
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<p>xylem</p>
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<p>xylem</p>

xylem

<p>transports water, hollow, top half of vein, water from roots being pulled up,</p>

transports water, hollow, top half of vein, water from roots being pulled up,

<p>transports water, hollow, top half of vein, water from roots being pulled up,</p>
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<p>palisade mesophyll</p>
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<p>palisade mesophyll</p>

palisade mesophyll

<p>has chlorplasts inside, tall column like cells, where most photosynthesis takes place</p>

has chlorplasts inside, tall column like cells, where most photosynthesis takes place

<p>has chlorplasts inside, tall column like cells, where most photosynthesis takes place</p>
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<p>spongy mesophyll</p>
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<p>spongy mesophyll</p>

spongy mesophyll

<p>Later for gas exchange, still some photosynthesis, chlorplats inside</p>

Later for gas exchange, still some photosynthesis, chlorplats inside

<p>Later for gas exchange, still some photosynthesis, chlorplats inside</p>
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<p>guard cells</p>
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<p>guard cells</p>

guard cells

<p>open and close stoma</p>

open and close stoma

<p>open and close stoma</p>
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<p>stomada</p>
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<p>stomada</p>

stomada

<p>pore that lets CO2 in and O2 out</p>

pore that lets CO2 in and O2 out

<p>pore that lets CO2 in and O2 out</p>
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<p>vein</p>
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<p>vein</p>

vein

<p>vascular bundle</p>

vascular bundle

<p>vascular bundle</p>
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<p>pholem</p>
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<p>pholem</p>

pholem

<p>bottom half of vein, transports sugar (food)</p>

bottom half of vein, transports sugar (food)

<p>bottom half of vein, transports sugar (food)</p>
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<p>lower epidermis</p>
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<p>lower epidermis</p>

lower epidermis

knowt flashcard image
knowt flashcard image
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<p>bundle sheath cells</p>
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<p>bundle sheath cells</p>

bundle sheath cells

<p>surround the vein</p>

surround the vein

<p>surround the vein</p>
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<p>upper epidermis</p>
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<p>upper epidermis</p>

upper epidermis

<p>layer of cells with no chloroplasts, prevents water loss, extra protection</p>

layer of cells with no chloroplasts, prevents water loss, extra protection

<p>layer of cells with no chloroplasts, prevents water loss, extra protection</p>
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Photosynthesis equation

Sun+6CO2+6H2O ---chlorphyll->C6 H12 06 + 6O2

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Pigment

Compound that absorbs light

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Chlorophyll A

absorbs mostly red light (MVP)

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Chlorophyll B

absorbs more blue light, (helper to A)

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Xanthophyll

yellow pigments

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Carotene

orange pigments

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beta-carotene

red pigments

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grana

one section of thylakoid, (one stack of pancakes)

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thylakoid membrane

one pancake, contains pigment

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stroma cytoplasm

inside chlorplasts

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NADPH

electron carrier -transports electrons from light reaction to Calvin Cycle

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Where does light reaction take place?

thylakoid membrane

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Steps of light reaction

  1. Light reaction starts by absorbing light (chlorophyll A)

  2. Light excites the electrons in PSII 3.electrons are transferred molecule by molecule down the ETC 4.Light excites the electrons in PSI 5.PSI passes electrons down the 2nd ETC

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Where do the replacement electrons come from?

H20

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What is the 2H2O split into?

4H + 4e- +O2

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What is the biproduct of the water that is split?

O2

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Chemiosis

movement of the H+ from inside the thylakoid membrane to the stroma.

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What does Calvin Cycle need to run?

Energy from ATP and electrons from NADPH

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Parts of Calvin Cycle

  1. Carbon Fixation

  2. Reduction

  3. Regeneration

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Carbon Fixation

-CO2 fuses with RuBP -Rubisco enzyme fuses two together to form a 6 carbon intermediate -Breaks in half and forms 2 pga

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Reduction

-Gaining electrons -Pga gets "dressed up" each pga gets ~p (high energy phosphate) from ATP and a e- from NADPH -Creates G3P -ADP and NADP+ go back to light reaction

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Regeneration

-Recycle

  • most G3P stay in the cycle-converted back into RuBP

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What does 1 spin of the cycle use?

-1 Co2 -2 NADPH -3 ATP

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How many turns release G3P?

3 turns 3 Co2 6 NADPH 9 ATP

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How many turns create glucose?

2 G3P or 6 spins 6 Co2 12 NADPH 18 ATP

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Endergonic

Needs energy, energy must go in -photosynthesis

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Exergonic

Releases energy, energy exits -Cellular respiration

  • Calvin Cycle

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Anaerobic

-Without oxygen -less steps -faster -Only has a yield of 2 ATP -takes place in cytoplasm

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Aerobic

-With oxygen -more steps -creates 38 ATP

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Anaerobic respiration equation

C6H12O6 + 2ATP --> 2 pyruvic acid + 4ATP --> 2 lactic acid or ethyl alcohol + CO2

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Aerobic respiration equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6H20 + 6CO2 + 38ATP

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Glycolysis

-Biochemical pathway -Net Yield 2 ATP

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Lactic Acid Fermentation

-Humans and bacteria -changes pyruvic acid into lactic acid

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What foods use lactic acid fermentation?

Cheese and yogurt

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Alcohol Fermentation

-in plants and yeast -changes pyruvic acid into ethyl alcohol + Co2

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What foods do Alcoholic Fermentation help create?

Wine, beer, vodka and bread

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Parts of Aerobic Respiration

-Glycolysis -Krebs Cycle -Electron Transport Chain

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What does the pyruvic acid do in Aerobic Respiration?

Combines with CoEnzymeA to form AcetylCoA, it then enters the mitochondria

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Krebs Cycle

-Citric acid -In matrix -5 steps -Co2 and electrons are given off

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ETC of Respiration

-Along cristae -builds up another concentration gradient -genarates 34 ATP (ATP synthase) -gives of H20

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Electron carriers of Aerobic Respiration

NADH and FADH2

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Final electron acceptor of ETC

O2

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When does oxygen become important during cellular respiration?

During ETC

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For every molecule of glucose in aerobic respiration, how many ATP are produced?

2 ATP

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Which of the following is not one of the main factors that affect photosynthesis? -Light Intensity -O2 concentration -temperature -Co2 concentration

O2 concentration

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