GLY 101 Exam 3

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Which physical property was responsible for determining how earth materials separate into interior layer at the time of earths formation

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Which physical property was responsible for determining how earth materials separate into interior layer at the time of earths formation

density

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What is a mineral phase change

atoms in a mineral are rearranged into a denser and more stable structure

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______ is the process when materials separate into different layers due to density

differentiation

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What is the major difference between the inner core and the outer core

the inner core is solid while the outer core is liquid

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What is the primary method scientists use to determine the layering of the interior of the earth

seismic waves

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What will happen to a seismic wave when it is reflected

the wave will be bounced back toward the source

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what will happen to a seismic wave when it is refracted

the wave will be bent when passing into a material of differing density

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which seismic waves would be most useful in determining the extent and thickness of the earths interior layers

P and S waves

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Which of the following materials will allow for the fastest transmission of seismic waves

rigid, less compressible material

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what is diffraction

a seismic wave is bent when it passes by a curved surface

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why do seismic waves follow strongly curved paths as they move through the interior

their velocities are changed because of increasing pressure with depth

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a relatively weak layer in the earth due to temperature is known as the _______

asthenosphere

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where is the thinnest continental crust in north America

basin and range region

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where is oceanic crust generated

along divergent plate boundaries

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the _____ is a seismic boundary between the crust and the mantle where there is a dramatic increase in seismic wave velocity

moho boundary

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the ______ layer is thought to have large variations in composition as well as temperature

D"

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Which layer or layers are believed to have convection cells

mantle and outer core

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which layer is thought to be the birthplace of deep mantle plumes

D" layer

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the inner core is believed to rotate independently from the outer layers of earth. why is this possible

the inner core is separated from the mantle by the liquid outer core and can spin freely

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where is the highest rate of heat flow escaping the earths interior

at mid ocean ridges

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______ is a technique to view three-dimensional changes in composition and density by seismology

seismic tomography

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how is the shape of earth affected by its rotation

the equator is further from the center of the earth than the poles

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which of the following materials would cause the greatest gravity anomaly

metallic ore

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a ______ occurs when an iron-rich fluid in the core is electrically charged and flowing, which generates a magnetic field

geodynamo

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______ are responsible for the heat generated in the interior today

short-lived radioactive isotopes

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why is conduction not an efficient way to move heat through most of the earth

rocks are poor conductors of heat

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what physical property of continents makes them difficult to subduct

low density

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which process is responsible for earths magnetic field? In which layer does this process occur

convection; outer core

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which of the following factors contributed toward the early increase in temperature in the earths interior

impact from planetesimals

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If the outer core is cooler than the inner core, why is it in a liquid state

it is under less pressure than the inner core

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The measurement of ocean depth and the topography of the ocean floor are known as _______

bathymetry

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which of the following groups contains all three major topographic provinces oceanographers use to define the seafloor

continental margins, mid-ocean ridges, and deep-ocean basins

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what are the two types of continental margins

passive and active

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which of the following is associated with a passive continental margin

no tectonic boundaries nearby

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which of the following is associated with an active continental margin

convergent boundaries

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which region is surrounded by an active continental margin

pacific ocean

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which of the following scenarios would likely result in the development of a passive continental margin

continental blocks rifting apart and becoming separated by seafloor spreading

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the continental shelf is composed of what materials

basaltic crust

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although many areas of the continental shelves are relatively featureless, there are some locations on the shelves that have received extensive glacial deposits and significant dissection by streams. How would this have been possible

the sea level dropped during the last glacial episode because water was stored in large ice sheets, exposing the shelves

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Which of the following will mark the furthest extent of a continent

lowest part of continental slope

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what is the definition of turbidity current

submarine landslide

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which part of a passive continental margin is built up by repeated deposition from turbidity currents

continental rise

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submarine canyons found cutting into the continental shelf and slope are believed to have been created ______

by rivers during the ice age

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What is the definition of subduction erosion

sediment and rock are scraped off the bottom of an overriding plate and transported into the mantle by a descending plate

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where is the deepest place on earth

challenger deep

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along which tectonic boundary are deep ocean trenches found

convergent

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volcanic island arcs are found near which features on the seafloor

deep ocean trenches

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what is the source of flood basalts associated with oceanic plateaus

the melting of the head of a mantle plume

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volcanic islands such as the Hawaiian islands form as a result of _______

mantle plumes

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submarine volcanoes, called _______ may rise hundreds of meters above the surrounding seafloor

seamounts

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where do rift valleys form along the oceanic ridge system

along the axis of some ridge segments where the rift is down-faulted

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what rock would you expect to find associated with a mid-ocean ridge

basalt

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what generates the magma necessary for seafloor spreading

partial melting

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which of the following materials or features are not found at mid-ocean ridges

deep submarine trenches

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the oceanic crust is composed almost entirely of _____ rocks that are underlain by _____ rocks, which makes up the lithospheric mantle

mafic; ultramafic

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the sheeted dike complex is layer _____ of the ocean floor

3

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which of the following is not an example of a continental rift

Appalachia, united states

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thermal springs known as _____ are often associated with oceanic ridges, where hot water containing dissolved minerals gushes from the seafloor

black smokers

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which process, common near black smokers, uses hot water circulating through the crust to alter olivine and pyroxene into chlorite and serpentine

hydrothermal metamorphism

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why do mantle plumes tend to concentrate beneath supercontinents such as Pangea?

A large landmass acts as an insulating blanket to trap heat in the mantle

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most mountain ranges are the result of _____ stress

compressional

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Which of the following terms describes the increasing downward force on basal rocks as a mountain continues to grow

gravitational collapse

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How would the angle of subduction of a tectonic plate influence the location of a volcanic arc

the steeper the angle, the further the arc would form to the trench

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In which location on a continent would one be likely to find young mountain belts (less than 100 million years old)

along the margins of the continent

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which of the following regions of a subduction zone is characterized by thick sequences of relatively undeformed sedimentary rocks

forearc region

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put the four regions of a subduction zone in order from the convergent boundary landward toward the continental interior

deep-ocean trench, forearc region, volcanic arc, back-arc region

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which factor(s) will most influence the depth of deep-ocean trenches

temperature and density of the plate

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the Cascadia subduction zone off the coast of Washington and Oregon famously lacks a well-defined deep-ocean trench. Why might this be the case

there is a shallow angle of plate subduction as well as large quantities of sediment infill

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How does the angle of subduction affect the dimensions of the forearc basin

steep angle of subduction leads to a narrow forearc basin

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what is the source of the sediments in a forearc basin

continental sediments and pyroclastic materials

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If a back-arc basin is associated with a volcanic island arc, what tends to develop there

long linear sea

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if a back arc basin is a region related to a subduction zone, how can such an extensional basin form near a boundary defined by compression

trench rolls back as the old, dense subducting plate sinks

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which of the following is an example of a volcanic island arc

Aleutian volcanoes

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In ocean-continental convergence, a volcanic arc is created on the _____ and is the result of _____ rising up from a subducting plate

continental plate; magma

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a ______ will form as sediment collects between the accretionary wedge and the volcanic arc

back-arc basin

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a divergent boundary will be characterized by what feature

a rift zone

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which of the following locations is a remnant of a forearc basin

great valley CA

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what is an accretionary wedge

sediments and ocean crust fragments being scraped off a subduction plate

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which type of volcanic material will dominate the eruptions along a continental volcanic arc

mafic lavas

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a _____ is a crustal fragment that has been transported by plate tectonics and has adhered to an overriding plate

terrane

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which of the following locations is composed largely of accreted terranes

california

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what is a suture

the zone where two continents are welded together

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as India is colliding with Asia, the margin of Asia is experiencing significant deformation. What is happening to the rocks that are being deformed

they are being displaced to the southeast to make up southeast asia

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put the three orogenic events of the Appalachian in order from oldest to youngest

taconic, acadian, alleghanian

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