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1

Distance

The total path traveled by an object, regardless of direction.

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2

Displacement

The shortest path between the initial and final position of an object, considering direction.

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3

Example of Displacement

Walking 3 meters east, then 4 meters north results in a displacement of 5 meters northeast.

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4

Speed

The rate at which an object covers distance, specifically the rate of change of an object’s distance (scalar quantity).

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5

Velocity

The rate at which an object changes its position, specifically the rate of change of an object’s displacement (vector quantity).

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Example of Velocity

A car traveling 60 km/h north has a speed of 60 km/h and a velocity of 60 km/h north.

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Acceleration

The rate of change of velocity.

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Example of Acceleration

A car increasing its velocity from 0 to 20 m/s in 4 seconds has an acceleration of 5 m/s².

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9

Distance-Time Graphs

Slope represents speed. A straight line indicates constant speed. A curve indicates changing speed.

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10

Example of Distance-Time Graph

A distance-time graph showing a straight line indicates the object is moving at a constant speed.

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11

Velocity-Time Graphs

Slope represents acceleration. Area under the graph represents displacement.

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12

Example of Velocity-Time Graph

A velocity-time graph with a slope of zero indicates constant velocity.

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13

Example of Equations of Motion

A car starting from rest (u=0) and accelerating at 3 m/s² for 5 seconds travels 37.5 meters.

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14

Centripetal Force

Force directed towards the center of a circular path.

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15

Example of Centripetal Force

The tension in a string when swinging a ball around in a circle provides the centripetal force.

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16

Centripetal Acceleration

Acceleration directed towards the center of a circular path.

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17

Example of Centripetal Acceleration

A car turning in a circular path experiences centripetal acceleration.

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18

Friction

The force that opposes the motion of objects.

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19

Example of Friction

Rubbing hands together generates heat due to friction.

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20

Tension

The force exerted by a stretched object like a rope or cable.

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21

Example of Tension

The tension in a rope when pulling a sled.

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22

Normal Force

The support force exerted upon an object in contact with another stable object.

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23

Example of Normal Force

A book resting on a table experiences a normal force from the table.

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24

Gravitational Force

The force of attraction between two masses.

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Example of Gravitational Force

The Earth's gravitational pull on a falling apple.

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26

Electrostatic Force

The force between charged objects.

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27

Example of Electrostatic Force

The repulsion between two positively charged balloons.

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28

Magnetic Force

The force between magnets or magnetic materials.

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29

Example of Magnetic Force

The attraction between a magnet and a refrigerator door.

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30

Newton's First Law

An object at rest stays at rest, and an object in motion stays in motion at constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.

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Example of Newton's First Law

A book remains on a table until pushed.

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32

Newton's Second Law

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass.

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Example of Newton's Second Law

Pushing a car with a larger force results in greater acceleration.

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Newton's Third Law

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

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Example of Newton's Third Law

The force exerted by a rocket engine pushes the rocket upward, while the exhaust gases are pushed downward.

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36

Resultant Force

The single force that has the same effect as all the forces acting on an object combined.

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Example of Resultant Force

Two people pushing a box in the same direction with forces of 10 N and 15 N have a resultant force of 25 N.

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Equilibrium

When the resultant force on an object is zero, the object is in equilibrium.

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Example of Equilibrium

A hanging picture frame remains stationary because the upward tension in the wire balances the downward gravitational force.

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40

Moment of a Force

The turning effect of a force about a pivot.

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41

Example of Moment of a Force

Using a longer spanner increases the moment, making it easier to turn a bolt.

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42

Principle of Moments

For an object in equilibrium, the sum of the clockwise moments about a pivot equals the sum of the anticlockwise moments.

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43

Example of Principle of Moments

A seesaw is balanced when the moments on either side of the pivot are equal.

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44

Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion.

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45

Example of Kinetic Energy

A moving car has kinetic energy.

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46

Potential Energy

Stored energy due to position or state.

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47

Gravitational Potential Energy

The energy an object possesses due to its position in the gravitational field.

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48

Example of Gravitational Potential Energy

A book on a shelf has gravitational potential energy.

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49

Elastic Potential Energy

Energy stored in stretched or compressed objects.

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