Class/MOA for Midterm

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What is the class and MOA of atoravastatin?

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1

What is the class and MOA of atoravastatin?

HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; competitively inhibits conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate

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2

What is the class and MOA of ezetimibe?

Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitor; inhibits absorption of cholesterol at the brush border of the small intestine

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3

What is the class and MOA of Colsevelam?

Bile acid sequestrant; binds with bile acids in the intestine to form an insoluble complex that is eliminated in the feces

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4

What is the class and MOA of Fenofibrate?

Fibric acids; activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, which increase lipolysis and elimination of triglyceride-rich particles from plasm

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5

What is the class and MOA of Nicain?

Antilipemic; not well-defined MOA, may involve partial inhibition of release of free fatty acids from adipose tissues

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6

What is the class and MOA of Omega-2-ethyl-esters?

Omega 3’s ; reduction in the hepatic production of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins

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7

What is the class and MOA of furosemide?

Loop diuretic; decreases sodium reabsorption by competing for the chloride site on the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter in the ascending limb of Henle’s loop

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8

What is the class and MOA of spironolactone?

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA); competes with aldosterone for receptor sites in the distal renal tubule, increasing sodium chloride and water excretion

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9

What is the class and MOA of Triamterene/Hydrochlorothiazide?

Potassium-sparing diuretic/Thiazide diuretic combination; produces mild diuresis, and increases sodium, water, and chlorde excretion

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10

What is the class and MOA of Tolvaptan?

Vasopressin antagonist; antagonizes the effect of vasopressin and causes and increase in urine water excretion

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11

What is the class and MOA of lisinopril?

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi); competitive angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, that prevents stimulation of the angiotensin II receptor.

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12

What is the class and MOA of Valsartan?

Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB); selective, reversible competitive antagonist of angiotensin II receptor.

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13

What is the class and MOA of amlodipine?

Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (DHP CCB); inhibits calcium ions from entering slow channels of vascular smooth muscle during depolarization leading to vascular smooth muscle relaxation

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14

What is the class and MOA of Diltiazem?

Non-Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (Non-DHP CCB); inhibits calcium ions from entering slow channels of vascular smoother muscle and myocardium during depolarization

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15

What is the class and MOA of chlorthalidone?

Thiazide diuretic; increases sodium, water, and chloride excretion by blocking reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule

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16

What is the class and MOA of diphenhydramine?

1st generation antihistamine; competes with histamine-1 for receptor sites, blocks histamine-1 release. Due to poor selectivity, also have CNS effects and anticholinergic effects

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17

What is the class and MOA of Ceterizine?

2nd generation antihistamine; competes with histamine-1 for receptor sites, blocks histamine-1 release. More selective for periphery receptors involved in allergic reactions

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18

What is the class and MOA of fluticasone nasal?

Intranasal Corticosteroid (INS); anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, vasoconstrictive

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19

What is the class and MOA of pseudoephedrine?

Decongestants; stimulates alpha-1 and beta- adrenergic receptors leading to vasoconstriction and some bronchodilation

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20

What is the class and MOA of Guaifenesin?

Expectorant; thins and loosens bronchial secretions (mucus), promoting lower respiratory tract drainage and removal of mucus

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21

What is the class and MOA of dextromethorphan?

Cough suppressant; depresses the cough center in the medulla oblongata

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22

What is the class and MOA of Benzonatate?

Cough suppressant; anesthetizes stretch receptors in respiratory passages, lungs, and pleura to reduce couh reflex

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23

What is the class and MOA of latanoprost?

Prostaglandin Analogues; Dilates vessels and increases the outflow of aqueous humor which reduces intraocular pressure.

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24

What is the class and MOA of brimonidine?

Alpha agonist; relatively selective for alpha-2 receptors which reduces aqueous humor production and increases its outflow to decrease intraocular pressure

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25

What is the class and MOA of timolol?

Beta Blocker; Blocks both beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors which reduces the intraocular pressure by reducing the aqueous humor production.

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26

What is the class and MOA of loteprednol?

Corticosteroids; inhibit the inflammatory response including edema, capillary dilation, leukocyte migration, and scar formation

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27

What is the class and MOA of cyclosporine?

Calcineurin Inhibitors; inhibits the immune response and limits inflammation.

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28

What is the class and MOA of albuterol?

Short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA); stimulates beta-2 receptors in the airways causing bronchial smooth muscle relaxation.

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29

What is the class and MOA of tiotropium?

Long-acting antimuscarinic antagonists (LAMA); inhibition of M3-receptors at the bronchial smooth muscle, leading to bronchodilation

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30

What is the class and MOA of fluticasone?

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS); reduction and prevention of airway inflammation.

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31

What is the class and MOA of fluticasone/salmeterol?

Inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-2 agonist (ICS/LABA); anti-inflammatory and bronchodilation

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32

What is the class and MOA of ipratropium/albuterol?

short-acting muscarinic antagonist/short-acting beta-2 agonist (SAMA/SABA); antagonist of the muscarinic receptor and stimulates beta-2 receptors in the airway, which leads to bronchial smooth muscle relaxation.

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33

What is the class and MOA of montelukast?

Leukotriene receptor antagonist; binds leukotriene receptors to inhibit their effect which results in bronchodilation.

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34

What is the class and MOA of Epinephrine?

Anaphylaxis; Alpha and beta agonist which leads to increased bp, cardiac output, and improved breathing.

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35

What is the class and MOA of omeprazole?

Proton pump inhibitor (PPI); irreversibly blocking the hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphate enzyme system of the gastric parietal cells.

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36

What is the class and MOA of famotidine?

Histamine type 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA); blocks histamine H2 receptor on the parietal cell

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37

What is the class and MOA of Sucralfate?

Mucosal protectant; forms a complex by binding with positively charged proteins in exudates, forming a viscous paste-like, adhesive substance.

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38

What is the class and MOA of promethazine?

antiemetic; inhibit dopaminergic, histaminic, and muscarinic activity in the CTZ

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39

What is the class and MOA of prochlorperazine?

Antiemetic; inhibit dopaminergic, histaminic, and muscarinic activity in CTZ

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40

What is the class and MOA of metoclopramide?

Antiemetics; dopamine antagonist, enhances response to acetylcholine in upper GI tract and blocks signals to CTZ to trigger vomiting

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41

What is the class and MOA of ondansetron?

Antiemetic; 5-HT3-receptor antagonist which blocks serotonin, both in the gut and centrally in the CTZ

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42

What is the class and MOA of diphenoxylate/atropine?

Anti-diarrheal; Opiate derivative – works on μ and δ receptors in the gut
Atropine solely to reduce abuse potential

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43

What is the class and MOA dicylcomine?

Irritable Bowel Syndrome; anticholinergic blocks acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in smooth muscles

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44

What is the class and MOA of linaclotide?

Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Agonizes guanylate cyclase-C on the luminal
surface of intestinal epithelium

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45

What is the class and MOA of lubiprostone?

Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Cl- channel activator which increases intestinal fluid and improves fecal transit

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46

What is the class and MOA of rifaximin?

Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Inhibits bacterial RNA synthesis by binding to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

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47

What is the class and MOA of polyethylene glycol?

for constipation; osmotic agent that pulls water into the stool

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48

What is the class and MOA of apixaban?

Factor XA-inhibitor; selective inhibitor of factor Xa which decreases thrombin generation and thrombus development

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49

What is the class and MOA of dabigatran?

Direct thrombin inhibitors; competitive, reversible, direct thrombin inhibitor which blocks conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin

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50

What is the class and MOA of Enoxaparin?

Low molecular weight heparin; potentiates antithrombin leading to decreased transformation from prothrombin to thrombin and inactivates factor Xa

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51

What is the class and MOA of Warfarin?

Vitamin K antagonist; Prevents the conversion of vitamin K back to its active form from vitamin K epoxide.

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52

What is the class and MOA of clopidogrel and prasugrel?

P2Y12 inhibitors; irreversibly and directly inhibits ADP binding to receptor sites, inhibiting subsequent activation of the glycoprotein IIB/IIIa complex

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53

What is the class and MOA of ticagrelor?

P2Y12 inhibitors; reversibly and allosterically inhibits ADP binding to receptor sites. Inhibiting subsequent activation of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex.

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54

What is the class and MOA of dipyridamole/acetylsalicyclic acid?

Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor.

Dipyridamole: Inhibits the uptake of adenosine into platelets, endothelial cells, and erythrocytes resulting in an increase in local concentrations of adenosine, which is a coronary vasodilator and a platelet aggregation inhibitor
Aspirin: Inhibits platelet aggregation by irreversible inhibition of platelet
cyclooxygenase and thus inhibits the generation of thromboxane A2
(TXA2)

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55

What is the class and MOA of allopurinol?

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor; decrease uric acid production

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56

What is the class and MOA of febuxostat?

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor; decrease uric acid production

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57

What is the class and MOA of colchicine?

Antigout agent; unknown MOA, but may interfere with crystal deposition in joint tissues

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58

What is the class and MOA of methotrexate?

Antimetabolite (antifolate); reversibly inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and blocks DNA synthesis, repair, and cell replication

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59

What is the class and MOA of azathioprine?

Immunosuppressant; halts DNA synthesis through incorporation into replicating DNA, also blocks purine synthesis

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60

What is the class and MOA of hydroxychloroquine?

Anti quinoline; unknown MOA, may inhibit locomotion of neutrophils and chemotaxis of eosinophils, impairs immune reactions.

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61

What is the class and MOA of entanercept?

Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi); recombinant DNA-derived protein which binds to soluble human TNF and blocks its interaction with its receptor

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62

What is the class and MOA of prednisone?

Glucocorticoids; upregulate the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins and downregulates the expression of proinflammatory proteins

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63

What is the class and MOA of anastrozole?

Aromatase inhibitor; blocks conversion of androgens into estrogen required for tumor growth

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64

What is the class and MOA of Tamoxifen?

Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM); competitively binds to estrogen receptors on tumors, inhibiting tumor growth

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65

What is the class and MOA of tacrolimus?

Calcineurin inhibitor; inhibits immune response and limits inflammation

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66

What is the class and MOA of epoetin and Darbepoetin?

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA); Binds to the erythropoietin progenitor cells, stimulating production/differentiation of mature red blood cells.

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67

What is the class and MOA of glipizide and glimepiride?

Sulfonylureas; stimulates insulin release from pancreatic beta cells

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68

What is the class and MOA of Repaglinide?

Meglitinides; stimulates insulin release from pancreatic beta cells

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69

What is the class and MOA of metformin?

Biguanides; decrease glucose from the liver and increase peripheral muscle glucose sensitivity.

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70

What is the class and MOA of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone?

Thiazolinediones (TZDs); decreases peripheral muscle glucose sensitivity and decrease glucose output from liver

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71

What is the class and MOA of linagliptin, saxagliptin, and sitagliptin?

Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) Inhibitors; binds to and inhibits DPP-4 enzyme resulting in prolonged incretin hormone levels

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72

What is the class and MOA of dapagliflozin and canagliflozin?

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors; inhibits SGLT2 in the proximal renal tubules which reduces the reabsorption of filtered glucose (increase in urinary excretion of glucose)

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73

What is the class and MOA of dulaglutide, Liraglutide, semaglutide, exenatide

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists; binds to human GLP-1 receptor which augments glucose dependent insulin secretion and slows gastric emptying

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74

What is the class and MOA of insulin glargine and insulin degludec?

Basal (long-acting) insulin; insulin promotes cellular uptake of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, and their conversion to glycogen, triglycerides, and proteins

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75

What is the class and MOA of alendronate?

Bisphosphonates; binds to bone hydroxyapatite and inhibits osteoclast activity.

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76

What is the class and MOA of raloxifene?

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM); binds to estrogen receptors, resulting in activation of estrogenic pathways in some tissues (agonism) and blockage of estrogenic pathways in others (antagonism)

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77

What is the class and MOA of levothyroxine?

Synthetic thyroxine (T4); T4 is a synthetic form of thyroxine, an endogenous hormone secreted by the thyroid gland.

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78

What is the class and MOA of Thyroid?

Desiccated thyroid; naturally derived thyroid placement containing both levothyroxine (T4) and liothyronine (T3)

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79

What is the class and MOA of potassium iodide?

Antithyroid agents; inhibits the release of thyroid hormones via direct effect on thyroid gland.

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