GENETIC VARIATION AND GENETIC CHANGE VOCABULARY

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36 Terms

1

crossing over

when parts of two chromatids cross over each other before meiosis I at a point of crossing over called the chiasma

<p>when parts of two chromatids cross over each other before meiosis I at a point of crossing over called the chiasma</p>
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2

recombination

the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes producing recombinant chromosomes

<p>the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes producing recombinant chromosomes</p>
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3

independent assortment

each chromosome pair is sorted independently of the other pairs during meiosis

<p>each chromosome pair is sorted independently of the other pairs during meiosis</p>
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4

segregation

the two members of any pair of alleles at a given locus separate and pass unchanged into different gametes

<p>the two members of any pair of alleles at a given locus separate and pass unchanged into different gametes</p>
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5

incomplete dominance

the action of one allele does not completely mask the action of the other and heterozygous offspring is intermediate in phenotype between the parental phenotypes

<p>the action of one allele does not completely mask the action of the other and heterozygous offspring is intermediate in phenotype between the parental phenotypes</p>
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6

codominance

both alleles in a heterozygous organism are dominant so both alleles are fully and equally expressed

<p>both alleles in a heterozygous organism are dominant so both alleles are fully and equally expressed</p>
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7

multiple alleles

three or more forms of ONE gene leading to 3 or more possible phenotypes for a particular trait

<p>three or more forms of ONE gene leading to 3 or more possible phenotypes for a particular trait</p>
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8

lethal alleles

alleles that cause an organism to die but only when present in homozygous condition

<p>alleles that cause an organism to die but only when present in homozygous condition</p>
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9

linked genes

genes that are located close together on the same chromosome and tend to be inherited together

<p>genes that are located close together on the same chromosome and tend to be inherited together</p>
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10

genetic diversity

the range of different genes and different alleles present in the gene pool of a population AND their relative frequency.

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11

allele frequency

% or number of each allele in a gene pool

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12

gene pool

all the alleles of all the genes that exist in a population at any one time

<p>all the alleles of all the genes that exist in a population at any one time</p>
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13

genetic change

the change in the frequency of alleles in a population's gene pool

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14

natural selection

the differential survival and differential reproductive success of individuals whose characteristics are best suited to the environment at a given time

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15

stabilising natural selection

selection for those individuals with average phenotypes and selection against those with extreme phenotypes

<p>selection for those individuals with average phenotypes and selection against those with extreme phenotypes</p>
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16

directional natural selection

selection for one end of a phenotypic range at the expense of the other

<p>selection for one end of a phenotypic range at the expense of the other</p>
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17

disruptive natural selection

selection against the average and for the extremes

<p>selection against the average and for the extremes</p>
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18

genetic drift

the change in allele frequency in a gene pool due to chance

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19

founder effect

loss of genetic variation when only a few individuals colonise a new area AND allele frequencies in the new gene pool are not representative of the original population

<p>loss of genetic variation when only a few individuals colonise a new area AND allele frequencies in the new gene pool are not representative of the original population</p>
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20

bottleneck effect

loss of genetic variation [change in allele frequencies in a population's gene pool] when a large population decreases in numbers to become a small population and then increases again

<p>loss of genetic variation [change in allele frequencies in a population&apos;s gene pool] when a large population decreases in numbers to become a small population and then increases again</p>
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21

migration

when individuals move from one population to another

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22

gene

a length of DNA, bounded by start and stop codes, that codes for a specific polypeptide chain, that then folds to form a functional protein

<p>a length of DNA, bounded by start and stop codes, that codes for a specific polypeptide chain, that then folds to form a functional protein</p>
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23

somatic mutations

not inheritable and occur in any cell in the body except the gametes

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24

gametic mutations

occur in the gonads when gametes are formed so can be passed onto offspring

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25

gene mutation

sudden and permanent change to the base sequence of a gene

<p>sudden and permanent change to the base sequence of a gene</p>
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26

evolution

the change in allele frequency in a population's gene pool from generation to generation

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27

meiosis

cell division to produce gametes

<p>cell division to produce gametes</p>
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28

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same genes and the same structure

<p>chromosomes that have the same genes and the same structure</p>
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29

recombination

one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another shuffling allele combinations

<p>one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another shuffling allele combinations</p>
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30

phenotype

physical characteristics of an organism

<p>physical characteristics of an organism</p>
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31

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

<p>genetic makeup of an organism</p>
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32

selection pressure

environmental factors that favour certain phenotypes

<p>environmental factors that favour certain phenotypes</p>
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33

allele

alternative form of a gene.

<p>alternative form of a gene.</p>
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34

haploid cell

cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).

<p>cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).</p>
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35

diploid cell

cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs, one set inherited from each parent

<p>cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs, one set inherited from each parent</p>
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36

unlinked genes

genes that are found on different chromosomes

<p>genes that are found on different chromosomes</p>
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