AP Psych Unit 6 Vocab

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Accommodation

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36 Terms

1

Accommodation

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

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2

AIDS

(acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

life-threatening sexually transmitted infection. it depletes the immune system leaving a person vulnerable to infections

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3

Assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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4

Attachment

an emotional tie with another person

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5

Autism spectrum disorder

a disorder that is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction along with fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

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6

Basic Trust

a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; formed during infancy

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7

Concrete operational stage

stage of cognitive development (6-11) when children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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8

Critical period

an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

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9

Egocentrism

the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view

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10

Fetal alcohol syndrome

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking

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11

Formal operational stage

the stage of cognitive development (age 12+) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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12

Gender

the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female

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13

Gender role

a set of expected behaviors for males or for females

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14

Identity

our sense of self

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15

Imprinting

the process by which certain animal forms strong attachments during an early life critical period

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16

Intimacy

the ability to form close, loving relationships

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17

Maturation

biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively influenced by experience

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18

Menarche

The first menstrual period

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19

Menopause

the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

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20

Object Permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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21

Preoperational stage

the stage (2-6) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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22

Primary sex characteristics

the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible

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23

Puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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24

Schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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25

Secondary sex characteristics

nonreproductive sexual traits

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26

Self concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in an answer to the question “Who am I?”

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27

sensorimotor stage

the stage (birth-2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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28

Sexual Orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex, the other sex, or both sexes

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29

Social Identity

the “we” aspect of our self concept; the answer to the question “Who am I?” that comes from group memberships

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30

Social Learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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31

Teratogens

agents that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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32

Testosterone

a steroid hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics, produced mainly in the testes, but also in the ovaries and adrenal cortex

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33

Theory of mind

people’s ideas about their own and other’s mental states

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34

Transgender

denoting or relating to a person whose gender identity does not correspond with the sex registered for them at birth

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35

X chromosome

a sex chromosome, two of which are normally present in female cells (designated XX) and only one in male cells (designated XY)

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36

Y chromosome

a sex chromosome that is characteristic of male cells in species

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