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Earth Systems and Resources
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any natural process that builds up Earth's surface
Any natural process that tears down or wears away Earth's surface.
the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move
Earth's outermost layer.
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
The central part of the earth below the mantle
a region around a magnetic material or a moving electric charge within which the force of magnetism acts
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
features that make up the earth's surface such as a plain, mountain, or valley
the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
a vent or fissure in the Earth's surface through which magma and gases are expelled
molten rock beneath the earth's surface
liquid magma that reaches the surface
earths crust located under the ocean
The portion of the earth's crust that primarily contains granite, is less dense than oceanic crust, and is 20-50 km thick
seismic waves that travel along the Earth's surface
waves that travel outward from an Earthquake's focus and cause particles in rocks to move back and forth in the same direction the wave is moving
waves that travel outward from an earthquake's focus and move through Earth by causing particles in rocks to vibrate at right angles to the direction of the wave
relating to or caused by an earthquake
An undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary.
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
the edges of tectonic plates
the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
going in different directions
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
one plate going under another plate
The process by which atoms are arranged to form a material with a crystal structure
to break down or wear away
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
the finest soil, made up of particles that are less than 0.002 mm in diameter.
A mixture of gravel, sand, silt, clay, and organic matter
material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
the coarsest soil, with particles 0.05,2.0 mm in diameter.
A mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks
a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
The outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil.
grasses, trees, shrubs, and any other plants that help to hold the soil in place
plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss
farmers disturb the soil and its plant cover as little as possible
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
carrier (of disease, for example)
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
Looking after something so it can be passed on to the next generation