BIO 181-Unit 4: Nutrition

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Closed Circulatory System

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47 Terms

1

Closed Circulatory System

Requires vessels to contain fluids that circulate around the organism

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Open Circulatory System

Does not require vessels to contain fluids that circulate around the organism

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3

Blood

Type of connective tissue composed of fluid matrix called plasma and formed elements

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4

Aorta

Largest artery that begins transportation of blood to the body

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Arteries

Transport oxygenated blood to organs and tissues

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Capillary Beds

In tissues to receive blood

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7

Veins

Transport deoxygenated blood to heart with the help of Venous pumps

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Vena Cava

(inferior and superior) large veinule into the heart

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Valves

Prevent backflow of blood when muscles are relaxed. Open and blood flows when muscles contract

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10

Atroventricular Valves

maintain unidirectional blood flow between atria and ventricles. Tricuspid on right and Bicuspid/mitral on left

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Semilunar Valves

Ensure one-way flow out of ventricles to arterial systems. Pulmonary on right and Aortic on left

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Electrocardiogram

Records electrical activity in the heart. Contraction of atria, contraction of ventricles, and ventricles relaxing

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13

Sinoatrial Node

On the right atrium wall that paces the heart's rhythm using autonomic nerves

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Purkinje Fibers

Job is to stimulate the ventricles

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15

Mechanical Digestion

Mastication, peristalsis, maceration, and segmentation

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Chemical Digestion

Enzymatic activity: salivary amylase

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Steps of Human Digestion

  1. Swallowing

  2. The Stomach

  3. The Small Intestine

  4. Fat Digestion and Absorption

  5. Large Intestine/Colon

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18

Epiglottis

Flap of cartilage at roof of tongue, depressed while swallowing to cover opening of trachea (windpipe)

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Saliva

Helps prevent mouth from drying out, first line of defense against disease-causing microorganisms entering mouth, and helps form bolus

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Bolus

Ball of food

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Stomach

Has three muscle types: longitudal, oblique, and circular, churns pre-digested food, and absorbs ~10% of caffeine, aspirin, water if dehydrated

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Phyloric sphincter

stomach to small intestine/duodenum

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Duodenum

Emulsification/breakdown of fat globules into tiny droplets, which provides a larger surface area on which the enzyme pancreatic lipase can act to digest the fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

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Jejunum & Ileum

~90% of absorption

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Microvilli

In the Small Intestine space (lumen) that lines the wall in brush0like structure, VIP for digestion, catches the nutrients to absorb

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Lacteal

Where the broken down fats are stored, pathway fat takes to go into cells

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Cecum

"dead end pouch" in humans/bacteria

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Appendix

Vestigial organ, or haven for bacteria when diarrhea flushes bacteria from the intestinesR

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Rectum

~4.7" long->anal canal

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Defecation

Removal of remaining waste material

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Carbohydrate Breakdown

Starts in the mouth with salivary amylase

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Protein Breakdown

Starts in stomach with pepsin

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Lipids

Broken down fat globules into fatty acids

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Xylem

Water and nutrients from roots to different parts of the plantP

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Phloem

Organic compounds from photosynthesis sites to other parts of the plant

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Sucrose

Gets transported from source cells into companion cellsTr

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Translocation

Movement of materials from leaves to other parts of the plant

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Cuticle

Waxy cover that prevents the plant from losing water

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Transpiration

Causes water to return to leaves via xylem caused by evaporation of water at leaf-atmosphere interface

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Stomata

Openings in the cuticle that take in and release water

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Cohesion-Tension Theory

Evaporation from mesophyll cells produce a negative water potential gradient that causes water to move upwards from the roots through the xylem

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Guttation

Exudation of drops of xylem sap on tips/edges of leaves of some vascular plants (grasses, some fungi)

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Suspension/Filter feeders

Capture and ingestion of food particles that are suspended in water

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Substrate feeders

Live in food source and eat as they burrow

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Deposit feeders

Eat their way through dirt, picking up decayed organic material

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Fluid feeders

Suck nutrient-rich fluids

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Bulk feeders

Eat large pieces of food using adaptations such as claws, teeth, pinchers, and fangs, etc.

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