AP Government Unit 1

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Direct Democracy

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37 Terms
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Direct Democracy

a form of government in which policies and laws are decided by a majority of all those eligible rather than by a body of elected representatives

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Participatory Democracy

individual participation by citizens in political decisions and policies that affect their lives, especially directly rather than through elected representatives

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Elite democracy

a model of democracy in which a small number of people, usually those who are wealthy and well-educated, influence political decision making

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Pluralist democracy

a political system where there is more than one center of power

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Natural Rights

rights that all humans have that include life, liberty, property

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Social Contract

an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society; individual surrenders liberty in return for protection

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Popular sovereignty

a doctrine in political theory that government is created by and subject to the will of the people

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republicanism

the political orientation of those who hold that a republic is the best form of government

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articles of confederation

a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states; it provided a legal symbol of their union by giving the central government no coercive power over the states or their citizens

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constitutional convention

the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787

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shay's rebellion

Massachusetts veterans were not paid for their service, MA militia was quickly overthrown by the vets, no federal government to step in and intercede; prompted the revision of articles of confederation

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virginia plan

James Madison wanted the representation in the legislature to be based off of population

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new jersey plan

Counter argument to virginia plan was to have legislative representation be equal, no matter the state’s population

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Great Compromise

The legislature would be bicameral (two houses) Senate- 2 senators per state House of Representatives- Census is performed every 10 years to determine representation House of Reps- direct election by the people

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electoral college

the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice president

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federalism

the idea of a federal organization of more or less self-governing units

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enumerated powers

specific powers granted to Congress by the United States Constitution

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Reserved Powers

powers reserved to the states by the United States Constitution

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concurrent powers

The U.S. Constitution gives concurrent powers, such as the right to build roads, to both the federal and state governments.

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separation of powers

a doctrine of constitutional law under which the three branches of government ( executive, legislative, and judicial) are kept separate

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doctrine of incorporation

The Supreme Court has ruled that states must guarantee that all citizens be guaranteed their rights, due to the 14th Amendment

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faction

dissension within an organization

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federalist

a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government

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antifederalist

opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government

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bill of rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges granted to the people of the United States

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amendment

a statement that is added to or revises or improves the constitution

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line-item veto

the power of a government executive to veto specific items in an appropriations bill without vetoing the bill altogether

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necessary and proper clause

Congress is given the power to pass all laws that are “necessary and proper”, allows Congress to exercise an incredible amount of enumerated power, thus limiting the power of the states

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nullification

the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress

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virginia and kentucky resolutions

a protest against the Federalist Alien and Sedition Acts

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dual federalism

the idea that the federal authority is clearly divided from the state authority and are therefore treated as equal

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McCulloch vs. Maryland

a landmark Supreme Court case from 1819. The court’s ruling asserted national supremacy over state authority.

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United States vs Lopez

the United States Supreme Court declared the Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990 an unconstitutional overreach of the implied powers of Congress under the Commerce Clause

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grants-in-aid

money from the national government given to the states

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categorical grants

federal grants for a specific purpose

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conditions of aid

terms set by the federal government that states must meet to receive funds

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mandates

terms set by the federal government that states must meet, even if money is not provided

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