Philo: Limitations and Transcendence

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Embodied Spirit

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40 Terms

1

Embodied Spirit

spirit inside you, opposite of dualism

If I were asked about myself, the answers would have a reference to my body.

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2

Man

entire human race

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3

Human

used for species classification

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4

Person

has recognition of rights and responsibilities.

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5

Human Person

has self-awareness, self-determination, and social interaction.

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6

Traits of a Person

Self-awareness, self-determination

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7

Self-awareness

can be based on other people

actively aware that he is experiencing the inner world

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8

Self-determination

  • Own goals, own determination is different from other people.

  • Free Will - capacity to choose.

  • Consequences - result of action (free will).

  • A person acts freely with due regard for the consequences of his actions.

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9

Human Action

a way to reveal a person’s true nature.

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10

Externality

capability to reach out and interact.

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11

Rational Part

loves truth and knowledge

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12

Spirited Part

seeks glory, honor, recognition

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13

Appetitive Part

desires food, drink, material wealth, sex.

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14

Plato

man is his soul

Soul is the essence of man’s humanity and the source of all activities.

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15

Aristotle

  • Man is the whole of the body and soul.

  • Body is the matter; form is the mind. There is no one without the other.

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16

St. Augustine

  • Man is divided into the body and the soul.

  • Soul is more important.

  • Man is the unity of the body and soul.

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17

St. Thomas Aquinas

Man is not only rational but an embodied spirit.

Soul can exist without matter.

Soul of man is not like the soul of an animal.

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18

Rene Descartes

Man’s body is subject to change, uncertain.

Philosophy of Doubt

If doubting then you are thinking. If you are thinking, you have to look for the certainty.

Cogito, ergo, sum

Man is his soul, not his body.

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19

Gabriel Marcel

Body is not merely a machine

Embodiment is the start of reflection.

Primary (I have my body): looking objectively, outside of my body, body has nothing to do with primary/soul.

Secondary (I am my body)

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20

Transcendence

The act of surpassing the limit

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21

Limitations

money, sleep, height, mobility, eyesight

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22

Personhood

state of being a person

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23

Human Nature

refers to the characteristics that distinguish humans from all  other creatures. 

Thinking, feeling, acting

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24

Inner world

personal thoughts or ideas

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25

Interiority

the quality of being focused on one’s inner life and identity

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26

Acts of a man

without bearing

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27

Human act

with moral bearing

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Cogito, ergo sum translates to

I think, therefore I am

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29

Man is a thinking being

According to Rene Descrates “Man is a res cogitans” which means

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30

Primary Reflection

when we look at a particular thing objectively (ob-jectum – thrown in front).

In this kind of reflection, I place myself outside the thing I am investigating. It has nothing to do with me nor do I have anything to do with it.

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31

Secondary Reflection

I recognize that I am part of the thing I am investigating, and therefore my discussion is subjective” (“thrown beneath”).

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32

The body as a Intermediary

I experience myself as being-in-the-world through my body.
between the self and the world.

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33

The body in intersubjectivity

between me and others

Through my body, I show myself to others and the others, through their body, show themselves to me.

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34

Elements of intermediary relation

Encounter

Concealment

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35

Concealment

Intermediary relation element, two parties/realities involved are concealed from one another

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36

Encounter

elements of intermediary  relation:

two parties/realities involved are related, open up to one another .

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37

Temporality

is the intersection of the past and future in the present

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38

HERE AND NOW  PRESENCE

where the past and future intersect, meet, converge the point of intersection , the cross section where the lines of the event in the past, present and future converge  the inseparability of the past, present and future.

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39

Events in different levels

a.Physical

b.Interpersonal

c. Social

d.Historical

e.personal

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40

Family, neighbors, peers, others

Network of relationships

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