Cellular Communication

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Paracrine signaling

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Paracrine signaling

Local signaling in animal cells involving secreted messengers that travel short distances

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Synaptic signaling

a type of paracrine signaling that occurs in the nervous system, where an electric signal triggers the release of a neurotransmitter

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Hormonal/endocrine signaling

long distance signaling where hormones travel through the bloodstream to their target cells

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3 steps of cell signaling

Signal reception, signal transduction, cellular response

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signal reception

the cell detects a signaling molecule (acting as a ligand) and it binds to a receptor protein on the surface

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signal transduction

the binding of the signaling molecule alters the receptor and initiates a signal transduction pathway

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cellular response

the transduced signal triggers a specific response in the target cell

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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)

cell-surface transmembrane receptors that work with the help of a G protein

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how GPCRs work

G proteins bind GTP from GDP, and then trigger a cellular response

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Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)

membrane receptors that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from A T P to another protein

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Protein kinases

proteins that transfer phosphates from A T P to protein, a process called phosphorylation

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Phosphorylation cascade

a chain of phosphorylation reactions involving kinases that greatly amplifies a signal with each step

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protein phosphotase

proteins that dephosphorylate other proteins. important in shutting down the phosphorylation cascade by inactivating protein kinases

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second messengers

small nonpolar nonproteins that enter a cell via diffusion and act as another messenger to transmit a signal

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Cyclic AMP (monophosphate)

a widely used second messenger created by removing two phosphates from ATP usually activates protein kinase A anf is often associated with GPCRs

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Adenylyl cyclase

an enzyme in the plasma membrane that converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal

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calcium ions (ca2+)

a widely used second messenger due to its conc inside the cell being very low, meaning a small change greatly affects the conc greatly

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aspects of signal regulation

amplication of signal and response, specificity of response, efficiency of response, termination of signal

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signal amplicfication

signal cascade amplifies the cell response and the number of products that can be made

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signal specificity and response coordination

different proteins in different cells can cause a completely different affect for the same signal

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cross talk

two pathways "communicate" via activation or inhibition

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signal efficiency

scaffolding proteins are used to make the signal more efficient

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scaffolding

large relay proteins to which several other relay proteins are attached. they increase the signal transduction efficiency by grouping togetherdifferent proteins involved in the same pathway

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signal termination

uses inactivation mechanisms like unbound receptors due to a lack of signaling molecules

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apoptosis

a type of programmed cell death that packages parts of the cell to be digested by scavenger cells. prevents enzyme leaking that could damage other cells can be triggered by inner or outer signals

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