Chem vocab ch. 4

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element symbol

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Chemistry

28 Terms

1

element symbol

letter code for an element that is usually one to two letters long

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2

law of constant composition

a given compound always contains elements in exactly the same proportion by mass

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3

Daltons Atomic Theory

theory established by John Dalton in the early 1800's, used to explain the nature of materials

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4

Atom

fundamental units of which elements are composed

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5

compound

substance made of 2 or more different elements joined together in a specific way

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6

chemical formula

representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms present and subscripts are used to show the relative numbers of atoms

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7

electron

negatively charged subatomic particles

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8

nucleus

the relatively small and dense center of positive charge in an atom

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9

proton

positively charged subatomic particle located in the atomic nucleus

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10

neutrons

a subatomic particle in the atomic nucleus with no charge

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11

isotope

atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

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12

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of a given space

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13

mass number

total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a given atom

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14

periodic table

chart showing all the elements arranged in columns in such a way that all the elements in a given column exhibit similar chemical properties

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15

group

vertical columns of elements on the periodic table

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16

alkali metal

group 1A metals

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17

alkali earth metals

group 2A metals

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18

halogen

group 7A elements

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19

nobel gas

group 8A elements

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20

transition metal

several aeries of elements in which inner orbitals are being filled

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21

metal

an element that gives up electrons relatively easily and is typically lustrous, malleable and a good conductor of energy and heat

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22

nonmetal

element that doesnt exhibit metallic characteristics; chemically a typical nonmetal accepts electrons from a metal

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23

metalloid

element that has both metallic, and nonmetallic properties

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24

law of conservation of mass

mass is neither created nor destroyed

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25

ion

an atom/ group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge

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26

cation

positively charged ion

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27

anion

a negatively charged ion

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28

ionic compound

a compound that results when a meta reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions

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