Medicinal Chemistry IB SL Chemistry

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Drug

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60 Terms

1

Drug

Something that causes a physiological change in the body

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2

Medicine

Something used to treat or prevent diseases

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3

Medicine and Drugs must do one of the following…

  • alter incoming sensory sensations

  • alter a person’s mood or emotions

  • alter the physiological state of the body, including consciousness and coordination

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4

Therapeutic effect

beneficial effect of a medicine

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5

What are the 3 parenteral methods of administration?

  • intramuscular - into muscle

  • subcutaneous - directly under the skin

  • intravenous - bloodstream(most rapid effect)

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6

bioavailability

fraction of administered dosage of a drug that enters the bloodstream and have an active effect

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7

What factors affect bioavailability?

  • method of drug administration

  • polarity of drug

  • type of function groups in drug

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8

True or False? Intravenous administration has a bioavailability of 100%

True

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9

True or False? Oral doses need to be 3 times stronger than an intravenous dose

False. They must be 4 times stronger

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10

What are the best type of molecules to be administered, in terms of solubility

One that is largely hydrophobic but still has some solubility

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11

Which functional groups are able to form hydrogen bonds easily?

  • carboxyl

  • hydroxyl

  • amine

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12

Which functional groups enhance lipid solubility(non-polar)?

Ones that lack the ability to ionize or form hydrogen bonds

  • phenyl group(benzene ring)

  • hydrocarbon chain

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13

How is the solubility of aspirin increased?

It reacts with NaOH

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14

True or False? Ionic salts increase solubility

True

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15

Therapeutic window

Measure of safety of a drug. A wide window means a wide margin between toxic and safe doses

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16

Therapeutic Index(TI) for humans

TI = TD(50)/ED(50)

  • TD(50) - median toxic dose

  • ED(50) - median effective dose

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17

What are the main stages of drug development?

  • drug is synthesized

  • Drug is tested on animals to find lethal dose

  • Drug is tested on humans in a double blind experiment

  • Unwanted side effects and tolerance must be determined

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18

How can you test the purity of aspirin?

Can be determined by melting points and IR spectrum

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19

True or False? More impurities means higher a melting point

False. More impurities means a lower melting point

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20

Analgesic

painkiller

  • aspirin

  • ibuprofen

  • paracetamol

  • morphine

  • codeine

  • dimorphine

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21

How does aspirin block the sensation of pain?

It blocks the action of enzymes that produce prostaglandins, which are involved in the transmission of pain impulses to the brain

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22

Anticogulant

prevents blood from clotting

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23

What are 5 common methods of drug administration?

  • oral

    • polar, water-soluble

  • intravenous

    • unstable or poorly soluble

  • transdermal(skin patch or ointment)

    • non-polar, lipid-soluble

  • rectal

    • unstable in gastric acid

  • inhalation

    • volatile

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24

Antibiotics

Drugs that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria

  • penicillin

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25

What is a beta-lactam ring?

A box shaped structure found in penicillin consists of three carbons and a nitrogen to make the base. One of the carbons in double bonded to an oxygen

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26

What doe beta-lactam antibiotics do?

They interfere with cell wall formation in bacteria by inhibiting the enzymes responsible for creating cross-links in the cell wall

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27

Antibiotic resistance

Bacteria that resists the effects of an antibiotic

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28

What are the causes of antibiotic resistance?

  • overprescription of antibiotics for basic illnesses

  • patients don’t complete their course of antibiotics

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29

How are antibiotics released into the environment?

  • antibiotics are given to healthy farm animals

  • Improper disposal by hospitals or companies

  • excreted by human urine

  • pharmaceutical waste

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30

Opiates

Natural analgesics derived from opium. Bind to opioid receptors in the brain and block transmissions of pain impulses.

  • morphine

  • codine

  • dimorphine

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31

What are the advantages and disadvantages of strong analgesics/opiates?

Advantages:

  • provide relief for pain

  • wide therapeutic window

  • improve quality of life

  • reduce anxiety

    Disadvantages:

  • euphoria and lack of self-control

  • regular usage can lead to addiction, dependence, and withdraw

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32

Blood-brain barrier

Tightly packed cell restricting passage of substances from bloodstream to brain that is largely composed of lipids

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33

How is dimorphine created from morphine?

morphine + ethanoic acid →dimorphine + water

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34

algmates

type of antacids that prevents acid from rising in the esophagus

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35

Proton pump inhibitor

inhibits the secretion of H+ ions into gastric juice. Stomach acid inhibitor that can last up to three days.

  • omeprazole

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36

H2 Receptor antagonists(H2 blockers)

stomach acid inhibitor that blocks histamine receptors in acid-producing cells in the stomach

  • ranitidine

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37

Virus

submicroscopic organism that replicates inside living cells of other organisms. Consist of a protein coat and nucleic acid

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38

Bacteria

small single cell microorganisms that are self reproducing, living, and contain various cell organelles. They are larger than viruses

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39

Why are viruses harder to target with drugs than bacteria?

  • they lack a cell structure

  • they lack subunits that can be targeted by antivirals

  • they mutate quicker

  • they must be targeted at a genetic level

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40

True or False? Antibiotics are effective against bacteria but ineffective against viruses

True

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41

How do antiviral drugs work?

  • alter a cell’s genetic material

  • block enzyme activity

  • bind to cellular receptors targeted by viruses

  • prevent release of viruses

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42

What are some examples of antiviral drugs for the common flu?

  • oseltamivir(oral)

  • zanamivir(inhalation)

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43

Why is HIV hard to treat?

  • mutates rapidly

  • has host cells to replicate

  • drugs that treat HIV may harm the host cell

  • high price of anti-viral drugs

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44

What are Socio-Cultural factors that affect AIDS?

  • condom use

  • ignorance and misinformation

  • stigmas

  • prostitution

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45

What are the three levels that nuclear waste is classified into?

  • Low-Level waste(LLW)

    • produces weak radiation for a short time

  • Intermediate-Level Waste(ILW)

    • produces strong radiation for a short time

  • High-Level Waste(HLW)

    • produces strong radiation for a long time

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46

What levels of radiation are typically found in medical settings?

  • Low-Level and Intermediate-Level

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47

What are examples of low-level waste?

  • gowns

  • protective clothing

  • shoe covers

  • tissues

  • needles

  • mops

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48

How do you dispose Low-level waste?

Store in shielded containers until the isotopes have decayed, then dispose of as non-radioactive waste

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49

What are some examples of Intermediate-level waste?

  • sources for radiotherapy

  • Co-60

  • Cs-137

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50

How do you dispose of Intermediate-level waste?

  • long term storage in shielding containers or concrete chambers, then buried underground

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51

In green chemistry, what are the preferred solvents in synthesizing drugs?

  • water

  • methanol

  • ethanol

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52

In green chemistry, what are the undesired solvents in synthesizing drugs?

  • pentane

  • dichloromethane

  • dichloroethane

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53

True or False? Many undesirable solvents are VOC(volatile organic compounds)

True

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54

Why are VOCs used as solvents?

They have high volatility

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55

Chlorinated vs non-chlorinated solvent types

Chlorinated:

  • ozone-depleting

  • accumulates in ground water

  • forms toxins if burned

  • toxic, irritant, and forms greenhouse gases

Non-chlorinated:

  • flammable

  • toxic, irritant, and forms greenhouse gases

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56

What are some of the Green Chemistry principles?

  • prevent waste

  • design less hazardous chemical synthesis

  • design safer chemicals and products

  • use safer solvents

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57

How are some bacteria inactivating penicillin?

They produce penicillinase/enzyme that deactivates penicillin

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58

How has the structure of penicillin been modified to overcome this resistance?

the side chain has been changed to preserve the beta-lactam ring

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59

How do antacids neutralize stomach acid

weak base + stomach acid(HCl) →XCl + water

  • CaCO3 + 2HCl →CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

  • MgO + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2O

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60

What are the advantages of taking ranitidine instead of antacid?

  • ranitidine can treat stomach ulcers

  • ranitidine prevents long term damage

  • ranitidine lasts longer

  • ranitidine doesn’t cause bloating

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