Criminal Justice Final

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Hispanic Communities

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Tags and Description

73 Terms

1

Hispanic Communities

stereotyped as illegal immigrants, over policed, underserved

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2

Black Communities

disproportionately arrested for violent and property crimes, shot 4x more than whites by cops

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3

Native American Communities

inadequate law enforcement despite higher crime rates, underfunded police, lack resources

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4

____ have the most confidence in police

whites

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5

first most important factor in public attitudes towards police

race

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6

second most important factor in public attitudes towards police

age

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7

procedural justice

levels of satisfaction mainly determined not by outcome but by process (what happens during the encounter)

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8

most likely victims of crime

african americans

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9

hispanics

race that initiates contact with police the least

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10

native americans

race that experiences the highest violent crime rates

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11

lowest victimization rates

asian, pacific islander and hawaiian

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12

middle eastern

race that experiences stereotyping at airports, racial profiling and hate crimes

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13

ratio of police fatal shootings has ____ from 1970 to 1998

decreased, by half

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14

Tennessee v Garner

one of the most significant police shooting incidents.. fleeing felon rule

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15

fleeing felon rule

allowed officers to shoot to kill for purpose of arrest any fleeing suspecting felon, supreme court declared unconstitutional

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16

vice activities

police historically segregated in low income and racial minority neighborhoods

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17

initial hiring, assignments and promotions

employment discrimination in policing

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18

bail critics

says system discriminates against poor defendants and racial minorities

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19

less

african american who SA white is ____ likely to be convicted than whites charged with SA a white

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20

enhancements

extra charges

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21

Strauder v West Virginia

limiting jury selection to white males violates equal protection clause of 14 amendment, but this didn’t stop them from developing techniques designed to preserve an all white jury.

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22

racial disparity

“minorities commit more serious crimes and have more serious prior criminal records than whites”

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23

indirect/ economic discrimination

“minorities are more likely to be poor”

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24

institutional discrimination

“minorities are more likely to be subject to the neutral laws”

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25

racial discrimination

judges are biased or have prejudices against minorities

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26

subtle racial discrimination

the disparities occur in some contexts but not others

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27

juvenile justice and delinquency prevention act 1974

separated, deinstitutionalize and when it was revised, construction of separate juvenile facilities

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28

first stage in juvenile justice system

intake.. juvenile petition, detention hearing, preliminary hearing, transfer hearing

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29

2 stage in juvenile justice system

adjudication- adjudicatory hearing (criminal trial)

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30

3 stage in juvenile justice system

disposition- final stage in processing, sentencing

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31

4 stage in juvenile justice system

post adjudicatory hearing - appeals

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32

superpredators

80s term to describe criminal youth “new breed of violent offenders with no remorse”

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33

gun free schools act 1994

automatic expulsion of at least 1 year for bringing firearm or explosive to school

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34

1960s focus

rehab

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35

1960s juveniles

starts to separate adults and juveniles

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36

1960s crime

increasing, new rights being violated, civil disobedience (protesting) was a crime that “led to other crime”

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37

1960s major events

civil rights, watts riots (police abuse riots)

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38

1960s supreme court

warren- search and seizure, individual and defendant rights

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39

1960s policing

end of reform era, team policing, miranda rights passed

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40

1960s sentencing

indeterminate sentencing, lots of judge discretion on length of time (between 10 and 25 years judge picks)

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41

1970s supreme court

burger- exclusionary rule

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42

1970s policing

moved from team policing to community policing, police corruption coming to light

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43

1970s sentencing

structured sentencing (by the book), sentencing chart

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44

1970s corrections

exposing high recidivism, no point in rehab, focus on punishment

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45

1970s juvenile

juvenile prevention act passed, required separate area from adults, status offenders can’t be held in confinement, increase use of community sentencing, more judicial discretion

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46

1970s crime

continued to increase

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47

1980s major events

“tough on crime” era

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48

1980s supreme court

burger, then rehnquist

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49

1980s policing

community policing still, african americans had hard time w this, war on drugs followed through by reagan

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50

1980s sentencing

mandatory minimum for drugs, truth in sentencing (violent and serious crimes had to serve at least 85% of sentence in prison) (states got money if adopted)

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51

1980s corrections

retribution, incapacitation and deterrence, dramatic increase in prison population, private prisons to help w overcrowding

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52

1980s juveniles

juvenile prevention act revised- completely separate facilities now, automatically tried as an adult if had drugs/ weapons w in 1000 ft of school

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53

1980s crime

dramatic increase in drug crimes, sharp increase in young men crime (superpredators)

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54

1990s major events

LA riots (rodney king), OKC bombing, Columbine

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55

1990s supreme court

rehnquist

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56

1990s policing

community policing still, police funding skyrockets with more military equipment

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57

1990s sentencing

3 strikes laws, more states adopt federal sentencing guidelines for all crimes, not just violent and serious ones

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58

1990s corrections

retribution, incapacitation and deterrence focus, prison population continues to grow fast

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59

1990s juvenile

more student issues turned criminal, schools hands them to police, schools becoming more prison-like, juvenile transfer is easier to get (juvenile to adult prison)

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60

1990s crime

violent crime increase ends

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61

2000s supreme court

rehnquist and john roberts

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62

2000s policing

increase in intelligence agencies, tech to fight crime like heat maps, racial profiling officially banned

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63

2000s sentencing

beginning of sentencing reform to help with effects of mass incarceration, focus more of release from prison (reentry), prison #s begin to drop

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64

2000s corrections

prison pop begins to drop

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65

2000s juvenile

death penalty eliminated

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66

2000s crime

street crime declining, increase in white collar crime, DNA relying

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67

2010s major events

mass shootings

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68

2010s supreme court

john roberts

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69

2010s policing

homeland security era (still increasing intelligence agencies)

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70

2010s sentencing

fair sentencing act, crack cocaine v cocaine (racial)

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71

2010s corrections

rehab and restoration focused, prison pop still declining

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72

2010 juvenile

life sentences without possibility of parole is unconstitutional, even for homicide later, solitary confinement for federal offense banned

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73

2010s crime

continues to decrease except for high crime cities, crime barely peaked on its decline right around elections.

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