lab 5 respiratory system

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tidal volume (TV)

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Biology

81 Terms

1

tidal volume (TV)

the amount of air inspired or expired during normal, quiet respiration

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2

inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

the amount of air which can be forcefully inspired above and beyond that taken in during a normal inspiration

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3

expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

the maximal amount of air which can be forcefully expired following a normal expiration

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4

residual volume (RV)

the amount of air which remains trapped in the lungs after a maximal expiratory effort

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5

total lung capacity (TLC)

the total amount of air the lungs can contain; the sum of all four volumes

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6

tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

= total lung capacity

(equation)

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7

vital capacity (VC)

the maximal amount of air that can forcefully expired after a maximum inspiration

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8

tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume

= vital capacity

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9

functional residual capacity (FRC)

the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration

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10

residual volume + expiratory reserve volume

= functional residual capacity

(equation)

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11

inspiratory capacity (IC)

the maximal amount of air which can be inspired after a normal expiration

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12

tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume

= inspiratory capacity

(equation)

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13

spirometry

a pulmonary function test that can distinguish between restrictive diseases and obstructive pulmonary diseases

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14

restrictive diseases

affect the lungs' capacity to expand

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15

obstructive pulmonary diseases

cause the lungs to hyper inflate due to an increase in airway restriction

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16

spirometer

an instrument used to measure respiratory volumes

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17

respiratory minute volume (L/min)

total amount of gas that flows into or out of the respiratory tract in 1 minute

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18

respiratory minute volume (L/min) calculation

tidal volume (mL) x respiratory rate (breaths/min)

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19

nomogram

graphical calculating device, used in clinical settings to predict the probability of an event based on known relationships to best prescribe treatment and care

can be used to determine the predicted vital capacity

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20

Heymer Test of Respiratory Reserve

better index of respiratory reserve than traditional vital capacity measurement

principal value of pulmonary measurements lie in following volume changes caused either by disease or recovery from a disease

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21

decreased vital capacity

individuals who have left-sided heart disease or paralytic polio are found to have _________

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22

left-sided heart disease

left ventricle is inefficient at pumping blood → blood builds up in pulmonary veins and causes pulmonary edema → build up of fluid in lungs → reduces amount of oxygen moving through lungs → shortness of breath

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23

poliomyelitis

virus that infects an individual's spinal cord and causes paralysis

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24

breathing hold time

gives an indication of an individual's functional respiratory reserve and efficiency of respiratory system

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25

more efficient

the longer an individual's breath-holding time, the _________ their respiratory system is at maintaining their blood's pH

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26

50-70 seconds

normal values for the Heymer Test of Respiratory Reserve (men)

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27

50-60 seconds

normal values for the Heymer Test of Respiratory Reserve (women)

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28

receptors, reflexes, and feedback processes

the concentration of O2 and CO2 in the lungs and blood is finely regulated by a variety of __________ which serve to control our respiration patterns

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29

dry gas meter

measures the volume of gas that passes through it and keeps a cumulative total

can measure tidal volume

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30

tidal volume calculation

divide the total air exhaled by the number of breaths made over the collection period

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31

metabolic rate (ml O2 consumed/min)

determined by calculating the difference between the percentage of O2 in inhaled air and the percentage of O2 in exhaled air then multiplying the difference to the volume of air breathed during a measured time span

[(% of O2 in inhaled air) - (% of O2 in exhaled air)] x volume of air breathed

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32

20.94%

% of O2 in inhaled air during rest/exercise

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33

18.24%

% of O2 in exhaled air during rest

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34

18.67%

% of O2 in exhaled air during exercise

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35

rate of oxygen consumption

equal to ventilation and perfusion

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36

ventilation

the rate at which you obtain oxygen from the environment across the respiratory exchange surface of the lungs

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37

perfusion

the rate at which oxygen is extracted from the blood going through the capillaries of the metabolizing cells

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38

ventilation-perfusion coupling

exchange between ventilation and perfusion

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39

increasing their respiratory rate and volume

an individual can increase ventilation by ________

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40

increasing their heart rate

an individual can be increase perfusion by ________

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41

ventilation and perfusion calculation

flow (ml/min) of medium (air or blood) x the amount of O2 that is extracted per ml of medium that passes the exchange surface

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42

minute volume

in the respiratory system, the flow of air is called _______

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43

cardiac output

in the circulatory system, the flow of blood is ________

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44

concentrations of oxygen in the inspired air and expired air

in the respiratory system, the differences between the amounts of oxygen per ml of medium entering and leaving the exchange surfaces between _____ = amount of oxygen extracted per ml of medium

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45

concentrations of oxygen in the systemic arterial blood and systemic venous blood

in the circulatory system, the differences between the amounts of oxygen per ml of medium entering and leaving the exchange surfaces between _____ = amount of oxygen extracted per ml of medium

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46

(minute volume)(concentration of O2 in inspired air - concentration of O2 in expired air)

= rate of oxygen consumption in respiratory system

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47

(cardiac output)(concentration of O2 in systemic arterial blood - concentration of O2 in systemic venous blood)

= rate of oxygen consumption in circulatory system

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48

100%, 60%

in most resting people, arterial blood is _____ saturated with oxygen, but mixed venous blood is usually only _____ saturated

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49

1.34 ml of O2

each gram of hemoglobin can bind with ________

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50

concentration of O2 in arterial blood at rest calculation (ml O2)

= average hemoglobin concentration (g Hb/100mL blood) x 1.34 ml of O2/g Hb

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51

concentration of O2 in mixed venous blood at rest calculation (ml O2)

= 0.6(concentration of oxygen in arterial blood)

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52

resting cardiac output calculation

= rate of oxygen consumption/(concentration of O2 in arterial blood - concentration of O2 in venous blood)

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53

cardiac output during exercise calculation

= stroke volume x heart rate

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54

resting stroke volume (ml blood/beat)

cardiac output/heart rate

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55

falls

during exercises, the oxygen content of venous blood _____; the amount is dependent on magnitude of the exercise

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56

amount of oxygen content that falls during exercise (calculation)

resting pulse pressure/exercising pulse pressure

resting stroke volume/exercising stroke volume

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57

increase, elevated

increasing stroke volume will _____ heart rate and result in an ______ cardiac output

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58

oxygen content of venous blood during exercise calculation

= concentration of O2 in arterial blood - (rate of oxygen consumption/cardiac output)

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59

medulla and pons

the increase or decrease in rhythm and rate of respiration is controlled by neural centers located in the ___________

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60

pH levels

any changes that affect concentration of O2 or CO2 in the blood will affect the blood's _______

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61

decrease in blood's pH

when CO2 levels in the blood increase, there is an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions causing a _________

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62

increase in blood's pH

when CO2 levels in blood decreases, there is a decrease in concentration of hydrogen ions causing an ________

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63

carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system

acidic blood → until the body can stabilize pH by combining the hydrogen ions with bicarbonate ions

alkaline blood → until more CO2 enters the blood cells to form carbonic acid

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64

blood's pH to increase

a reduction in CO2 levels due to rapid, deep breathing leads to a decrease in carbonic acid levels causing the __________

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65

rapid, deep breathing

increased rate/depth of respiration

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66

slow, shallow breathing

decreased rate/depth of respiration

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67

decreasing the blood's pH

an accumulation of CO2 due to slow, shallow breathing leads to an increase in carbonic acid levels, thus _______

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68

respiratory rate

breaths/min

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69

regular intervals

when reading silently, an individual's inspirations and expirations should occur at _________

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70

decreases

when an individual is reading out loud or singing, their inspirations are shorter and occur less frequently due to increased length of expirations when producing sound

decrease in frequency of inspirations = the respiratory rate while speaking ______

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71

chemoreceptors

when an individual holds their breath for an extended period of time without exhaling, CO2 accumulates and blood becomes acidic

stimulates _____ that will communicate with neural receptors in brain → forces individual to exhale

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72

inhale deeply, breathe faster

once the individual exhales after holding their breath, they will immediately ______ (increases tidal volume) and _____ (increases respiratory rate) to replenish oxygen levels in body

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73

decrease, increase

when concentrating on a task, individuals find they often hold their breath resulting in a _______ in their overall respiratory rate

tidal volume and respiratory rate will ______ until blood pH stabilizes

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74

increase

after a few minutes of rebreathing, CO2 levels accumulate in blood, resulting in an ______ in respiratory rate and tidal volume in an attempt to get rid of excess CO2

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75

hyperventilation

occurs when an individual takes rapid and deep breaths that exceeds body's needs to eliminate CO2

low CO2 in body, leads to decrease in BP and reduction of circulation of blood to brain → dizziness/faintness

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76

decrease, decrease

when the concentration of CO2 in blood becomes too low, the brain will force the body to _____ the respiratory rate and _____ tidal volume

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77

apnea

cessation of breathing, can occur until CO2 levels increase enough to meet metabolic demand

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78

still increase

hyperventilation symptoms can be averted by breathing into a paper bag

while respiratory rate and tidal volume will ________, individuals who hyperventilate involuntarily can prevent feeling dizzy/faint

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79

chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, asthma

commonly heard of respiratory disorders that affect an individual's ability to breathe normally

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80

COPD

irreversibly decrease an individual's ability to force air out of lungs

ex: emphysema or chronic bronchitis

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81

asthma

result of inflammation in the bronchioles reducing the amount of oxygen that can reach the alveoli

considered reversible as there are symptom-free periods that follow each episode

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