Unit 3 - Science

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scientific revolution

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scientific revolution

change in how we view our universe; from god to math and science; one of the greatest accomplishments in history

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nicolaus copernicus

wrote "revolutions of the heavenly spheres"; first to challenge the ptolemaic system; said earth moved around the sun; ruined humans "chain of being" of not being #1; father of heliocentricism

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the ptolemaic system

earth is the center and above is 10 crystals that reach god

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johannes kepler

suggested elliptical orbits; found that planets travel at different speeds, and move faster as they approach the sun, and slower as they move away from it (Laws of Planetary Motion)

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galileo galilei

wrote dialogues on "Two Chief Systems of the World"; first to use the telescope correctly; shattered the ptolemaic system; saw craters on the moon (supposed to be circles by god) and 4 moons revolving around jupiter; first to believe the universe was subject to cold, mathematical, mechanistic laws; like a machine; god was no longer the creator of the universe; discovered inertia; excommunicated; fights for freedom of thought

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sir issac newton

wrote "principia mathemetica", all objects moves through mutual attraction (gravity) - explained the orderly motion of planets; invented calculus; invented laws of motion (how things move) and optics (how you see things); replaced ptolemy's theory; said the natural universe became a realm of law and regularity (everything can be proven with math); said god no longer needed to explain the universe, but was still the first creator

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francis bacon

induction (scientific method); father of empiricism (see to believe it), attacked any truth solely based on tradition; one must observe before an attempt explanation, the last test of a theory was if it described what could actually be observed; leads to inductive reasoning (again and again), advocated innovation and change; believed all knowledge came from experience; said science has a practical purpose to improve human life

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rene descartes

deduction (truth can be reached through reason), done in the mind using math and logic; proved his existence "I think, therefore I am" (cogito ergo sum); proved gods existence; said all nature can be explained with deductive reasoning and mathematical proofs; invented analytical geometry (x & y)

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scientific method

descartes method (deduction) + bacons method (induction)

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blaise pascal

genius mathematician (pascals triangle); invented the calculator; said reason and science were no help in the matters of religion, only the heart and a leap of fail could prevail christianity; said reason is weak because it can't solve all human nature and destiny problems; faith drives mortality aka nature isn't always right, don't disregard faith; bet: it's a better bet to believe in god than to not

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thomas hobbes

wrote the "leviathan" during the civil war so he came to the idea that people are bad; said man is born materialistic and egotistical, and that life is "nasty, brutish, and short"; original human state was pure freedom - chaotic and horrible, every man against man; said you needed a social contract (giving up freedom) to become civil and safe (power comes from the people ruling, not god) - replaced divine right to kings; ruler had to impose order and safety; no rebelling

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John Locke

wrote "two treatises on government"; said man by birth is good and the original state was one of perfect freedom and equality with natural rights to life, liberty, and property; social contract to "umpire" their disputes and reserve natural rights; you can rebel; put reason into government; governments job is human freedom; said humans are born as tabula rasa (blank slate) and that experience teaches all - shifted child raising/character development

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deism

monotheism based on reason; believed church exploited peoples ignorance and superstition and spread wars; said god was the great clock maker who created a perfect universe and then stepped away; born with religious knowledge, but no specific church is right on religion; knowledge only comes from investigation; afterlife determined by ones actions on earth; god is distant and does not intervene

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enlightenment of the 18th century

1690-1780, now applied to the people; said natural science and reason can explain all aspects of life; scientific method can explain laws of nature and man, social sciences possible; progress is possible if laws are understood and followed

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denis diderot

tried to accumulate all human knowledge and promote enlightenment ideas (the encyclopedia project) free and open learning for anybody

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philosophes

looked to england with free society and constitutional government; saw church as the main enemy of human happiness; gathered in salons to discuss latest books and news; women hosted

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madame de pompadour

one of the most popular and charming hostesses; advanced french patronage of the arts and the belief in french pride

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madame du chatelet

helped interpret the new science and bring it to more people through Voltaire

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religion...

stood opposed to reason and science, slowed human progress and perpetuated superstition and ignorance and violence

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voltaire

said "crush the infamous thing" (the church); also said "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it"

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mary wollstonecraft

wrote "vindication of the rights of women", said women are not inferior to men, they only appear to be because of the lack of education; women should not be ornaments; first feminist

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baron de montesquieu

applied reason to gov; wrote "spirit of the laws"; said division of gov into 3 branches, executive(signs laws), legislative(makes laws), and judicial(reviews laws); checks and balances

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jean-jacques rousseau

the "black sheep" of the enlightenment; said rationalism and civilization were destructive, not liberating; wanted to return to nature, wanted "general will"; spoke to children and gov, said children should be raise self-expressive and away from civilization to learn through experience; in "social contract" argued for direct democracy; society is better than its individual members; evil comes from uneven distribution of wealth, better to be poor and moral than rich and immoral

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john wesley

founder of methodism; a pietism sought to revive protestantism; said calvinism and predestination were not agreeable with god; also upset over lack of care for the people; preached in open fields, emphasized universal salvation

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andreas vesa

advanced anatomy and the human body

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william harvey

found that the blood circulates through the body

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robert hooke

found cells

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robert boyle

chemist

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