primate soc psych exam 2

studied byStudied by 19 people
get a hint

what is the primary goal of evolution?

1 / 109

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

110 Terms


what is the primary goal of evolution?

to pass on genes and maximize reproductive success

New cards


species that have unequal sized gametes (ie human sperm vs egg), often representing each sexes’ parental offspring

New cards

is child rearing only seen in female primates?

no, equal male + female parental investment can be observed in tamarins

New cards

main difference between the sexes in reproductive fitness maxing strategies

males invest in mating opportunities while females invest in offspring

New cards

reproductive variance

the range of reproductive success/amount of offspring of one sex

New cards

average reproductive sex across the sexes

reamins similar

New cards

the majority of reproductive success in chimpanzees is largely due to what rank(s) of males?

the alpha and beta male

New cards

how does dominance influence female chimpanzee reproductive variance?

rank has a much less variable effect on reproductive success - most females are not far off in terms of offspring compared to the alpha female

New cards

bateson’s principle

males tend to have far higher reproductive variance than females

New cards

what tactics do primates utilize to reduce potential for inbreeding?

  • dispersal

    • westermarck effect

New cards

westermarck effect

reverse sexual imprinting —> people are less likely to find their relatives attractive than strangers. this extends to unrelated individuals who were raised together

New cards

how do males and females differ in reproductive success tactics?

males compete for acess to mates while females prefer to find quality mates

New cards

examples of male-male competition

direct competioin, sperm competiotion, and infanticide

New cards

direct competition tends to favor

the larger and more physically powerful male

New cards

example of primate species that engage in infanticide


New cards

purpose of infanticide

  1. to establish the dominance status of a new alpha male

  2. to revert females back to reproductive readiness

New cards

is infanticide a universal practice?

it is not universal across primates or even in individuals from species who use infanticide

New cards

chimpanzee vs. bonobo sexual dimporphism

chimpanzee males and females have a significant size difference while bonobos tend to be the same size regardless of sex

New cards

sperm competition

species that rely on viability of their sperm from male to male to outcompete others

New cards

how does mating structures of a species relate to testes size?

species with higher rates of monogamy tend to have smaller testes (chimpanzees are fission fusion —> larger testes than polygyny gorillas)

New cards

example of males presenting to females

chimpanzee males storm forests and shake trees to exhibit powers

New cards

examples of primate species that exhibit parental care

squirell monkeys and titi monkeys

New cards

how do lower ranked male baboons increase their reproductive scuccess?

they form close bonds with the females and spend a lot of time with her/her infant, increasing her likelihood of mating with the male after returning to reproductive readiness

New cards

cons of obvious female sexual swelling

leads to female monopolization due to short period of reproductive readiness

New cards

concealed female sexual swelling example

bonobos often experience sexual swelling even if not ready for reproduction

New cards

chimpanzee male mate age preference

old parous/older mothers

New cards


conflict between members of the same species

New cards

factors that contribute to aggression

  • drive

  • genes

  • learning/upbringing

  • models/tv

  • frusteration/pain

  • alcohol (substances)

    • hormones

New cards

konrad lorenz aggression model

we recieve tension from various areas of life that build up until producing aggressive behavior

New cards

frans de waal arnhem zoo experiment

found that tighter confines increased chimp aggression excluding acts of severe aggression (ie fights). also found that the amount of submissive behaviors and social grooming increased.

New cards

how can chimp group aggression levels change?

via changing living conditions, such as having vocal neighbors from a different group

New cards

sapolsky baboon study

  • observed a baboon troupe where half of males (who were mostly high ranked) passed away due to ilness. reamining group showed signifigant increase in social grooming, lower male-male interactions + faster integration of new males, and decreased stress and anxiety that continued rto be passed to offspring

New cards

alpha male responsibilities

  • policing

  • peace keeping

  • conflict resolution

New cards

human impact to primate behavior

  1. deforestation

  2. disease

  3. hunting

  4. provisioning

New cards

tendency to engage in chimp between group warfare is most influenced by

number and density of chimp males

New cards

ultimate hypothesis for aggression

may have developed as a means of driveing dispersal

New cards

how does aggression influence contact between individuals?

aggression increases the amount of contact between individuals

New cards

how is agression influenced by kinship?

closer relations tend to show more aggression

New cards

crowding leads to an increase in what behavior?

grooming (not aggression)

New cards


friendly reunion between former opponents shortly after fighting

New cards

reconciliation example

stumptails present their back sides to be gromed as a show of trust

chimps put their hands in the mouth of the winner

bonobos use sex

New cards

reconciliation benefits

  1. lowers risk of revival of conflict

    1. reduces aggression and conflict (individuals and group)

New cards

example of anxiety behaviors (macaques)

self-scratching (lowers if reconciliation occurs post conflict)

New cards

baboon reconciliation

playing with eachother’s infants (approach + call)

New cards

macaque learned reconciliation study

infant rhesus macaques (little reconciliation) were raised with stumptail macaques and eventually began to show reconicilition 2-3X more than average. they kept this behavior even moving back

New cards

who will be prioritized for reconciliation? (valuable relationship hypothesis)

kin and important partners

New cards

muriquis affiliation


New cards

golden monkey third party reconciliation

male involvement when two females fight leads to much higher post conflict reconciliation levels

New cards

male coalitions

male-male social bonds in male dispersal species, often between non-kin. manipulate these social relations for power

New cards

gelada male alliances

one dominant male and subordinate(s)

New cards

consession model

trading mates for protection

New cards

examples of mitagating aggresion

male-infant-male interactions. dominant males usually have favorite infant, and sometimes females will use this to their advantage to invoke male-male reconciliation and interactions between those far in rank

New cards

triadic awareness

understanding the relationships between individuals beyonds yourself

New cards

bonobo consolation

when needing consolation, usualy seen by screaming, they seek hugs from others

New cards

bonobo consolation is primarily given by

top ranked males

New cards

chimpanzee reconciliation is typically given by

the lower ranked individuals, especially females (excluding alpha male)

New cards

agressive alliance

winner support

New cards

defensive alliance

loser support

New cards

alpha male responsibilities

  1. breaking up fights/consolation

  2. peace keeping

  3. policing

  4. providing resources

  5. loser support

  6. impartial intervention

New cards

differnt types of alphas

  1. bully (aggressive towards lower ranks)

  2. populist (more positive interactions with lower ranks to recieve support)

New cards

requirements for male chimp dominance

  1. physical power/intimidation

  2. female support

  3. male-male alliances

  4. generosity

  5. divide and rule

New cards

capuchin example of inequity aversion

when offered a worse reward than partner (ie grape) they will throw it on the ground/refuse it

New cards

advantages of fairness

  1. social groups require a lot of cooperation and reciprocity

  2. sensitivity may allow for avoidance of future unfair events

New cards

most influential factor in inequity aversion

task difficulty

New cards

first order inequity aversion

refers to individual themselve being disadvantaged

New cards

why would fairness evolve (proximate + ultimate)?

proximate: individuals must be sensitive to fairness in order to avoid being taken advantage of

ultimate: evolved in social species that interact more frequently with non-kin —> larger range of potential partners

New cards

when is inequity sensitivity adaptive?

when you have the oppurtunity to select cooperative partners

New cards

second order inequity aversion

observing inequity to a partner leading to sharing/equalizing to be fair

New cards

chimpanzee social pressure in token exchange

partner who was treated unfairly might show annoyance (ie blowing a raspberry) to pressure partner into prosociality. too much pressure decreases prosocial response.

New cards

3rd order inequity aversion

wanting everyone to be treated fairly

New cards

what constitutes as economic behavior in primates?

  1. trading and bartering

  2. “financial” transactions

  3. economic biases

New cards

relationship between trade and grooming

individuals are more likely to share food with those who groomed them earlier that day

New cards

chimpanzee meat sharing behaviors

  1. those who hunted are prioritized

  2. alpha prioritizes those who may make good alliances + avoids giving food to second rank

New cards

requirements of economic behaviors

  1. establishing value

  2. tracking individual interactions, relationships, ledger, and affinity

  3. identify good partners

New cards

loss aversion

greater sensitivity to losing what you have then gaining an equivalent amount

New cards

reference dependence

purchasing decisions made in reference to initial purchase

New cards


relationship between cortex ratio and group size

New cards

capuchins make good test subjects because

  1. they have extrodinarily large brains

  2. show cooperative and prosocial behavio

New cards

example of presentation (playback) experiments

playing vocal stimulation (ververt monkey alarm calls)

New cards

presentation experiments have helped us identify

kin recognition, monitoring relationships, and rank recognition in primates

New cards

difficulties of interactive experiments in the wild

  1. limited participation

  2. one individual often monopolizes testing

  3. often a one-shot experiment

New cards

Wilson “lethal aggression” paper summary

aimed to determine adaptive explanations of chimpanzee killings. found that most attackers were males + most attacks were intercommunity and that killing rates did not correlate with human impact

New cards

human impact hypothesis examples

deforestation, introduced diseases, hunting, providing food

New cards

sapolsky pacific baboons

troop with only lower ranked males show far higher levels of grooming and less stress/agression levels that were passed down generations

New cards

de waal “crowding”

High population density is not equated with higher levels of violence

New cards

de waal “primate aggression”

natural cyclce of agression and reconciliation in chimpanzees that often brings more interactions between agressor and agressee

New cards

chapais “rank maintenance”

females are dependent on allies, both within and outside family, for dominance even considering matrilineal inheritance

New cards

de waal “animal business”

non-human primates also express cooperation, repayment of favors, and emotional reactions to unfairness

New cards

santos & chen “economic behavior”

utilize capuchin token trading to witness similarities between human and animal economics

New cards

In Frans de Waal's book, Chimpanzee Politics, which chimp ascended in dominance by continually interfering with dominant male-female interactions?


New cards

True or false: Analogy is characterized by convergence and homology is characterized by divergence.


New cards

agnostic buffering cn be seen in

barbury macaques

New cards

Which of the following is the most likely explanation for how chimps track exchanges? 

cumulative affinity

New cards

Second order inequality aversion is rare and may only be seen in

humans and great apes

New cards

Which of the following statements explain the social intelligence hypothesis?

Social demands produce an increase in brain size & The complexity of primate groups is what led to the development of advanced cognitive abilities

New cards

darwin argued that facial expressions

could be cinserved between species, similar to physical traits

New cards

nadia kohts

russian primatologist that documented eight distinct emotions in Joni, a chimpanzee, in the 1910’s

New cards

fixed action patterns

consistently produced behaviors that are triggered consistently by specific stimuli

New cards

Jan Van Hoof

argues that emotions are an example of a fixed action pattern, and that fied action patterns are evolved by natural selection

New cards

black crested macaque affiliative communication

use lip smacking to request hugs and smile during these interactions

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 165 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard104 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard125 terms
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)