ANAT LEC Ch. 13 - The Nervous System

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SLOW onset

LONG LASTING effects

  • (Minutes-days )

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Tags and Description

NS=Nervous System, B/w= Between

33 Terms

1

SLOW onset

LONG LASTING effects

  • (Minutes-days )

Endocrine system has a ____ onset and _____ effects

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2

FAST onset

SHORT TERM effects

Nervous system has a ____ onset and _____ effects

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3

Central Nervous System (CNS)

  • Brain & Spinal cord

  • Processing & coordinates SENSORY input

  • all higher thinking & func

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4

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

  • Peripheral nerves

  • Provides SENSORY info to the CNS

  • Carries out MOTOR commands sent down by the cns

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5

Afferent Division

Carries info FROM:

  • SOMATIC sensory receptors monitor and send info abt muscles, joints and skin

  • VISCERAL sensory receptors monitor other internal organs from systems (Ex. Cardiovascular & Respiratory)

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6

Efferent Division

Divided into 2 systems:

  • SOMATIC Nervous System (NS): Controls muscle CONTRACTIONS (voluntary/involuntary)

  • AUTONOMIC NS: Regulates smoot & cardiac muscle & glandular activity (INvoluntary)

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7

Afferent Example

Touching the stove gives info, to the brain, on the texture/ temp/ feel

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Efferent Example

Touching the stove gives info, to the brain, to reflex the hand AWAY from the hot stove

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9

Neuroglia

Support and Protect nervous system and neurons

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10

4 Types of Neural Glial Cells

  • Astrocytes

  • Oligodendrocytes

  • Microglia

  • Ependymal Cells

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<p>Astrocyte Characteristics</p>

Astrocyte Characteristics

Largest & most numerous

Functions:

  • Control INTERSITIAL environment

  • Maintain Blood-Brain Barrier

  • Form 3D framework for the CNS

  • Repair damaged nervous tissue

  • Guide neural development EMBRYONICALLY

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<p>Oligodendrocytes Characteristics</p>

Oligodendrocytes Characteristics

  • Improve conduction of the axon

    • thru MYELIN SHEATH

  • Wrapped areas = INTERNODES

  • Myelin sheath Gaps = Nodes of Ranvier

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13
<p>Microglia Characteristics</p>

Microglia Characteristics

  • Act as PHAGOCYTIC cells of CNS

  • Attack viruses, microorganisms, tumor cells

  • 5% of CNS cells (#s increase when needed)

(Keep the CNS clean)

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<p>Ependymal Cells Characteristics</p>

Ependymal Cells Characteristics

  • Lines ventricles of the brain & central canal of spinal cord

  • Assist in producing, circulating, monitoring CEREBROSPINAL Fluid

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The Peripheral Nerves

Axons of the PNS group together to form ____

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<p>SATELLITE Cells &amp; SCHWANN Cells</p>

SATELLITE Cells & SCHWANN Cells

Peripheral Nervous System is composed of

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17

Neurolemma

Schwann Cell’s membrane is _____

  • Extends & Wraps around PART of axon of single nerve cell

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SINGLE nerve axon

MULTIPLE axons at once

Multiple Schwann line a _____ nerve axon

Oligodendrocytes encircle ______ axon at once

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19
<p>Neurons</p>

Neurons

  • Responsible for transfer/processing of info in the Nervous system

    • thru ELECTRICAL Impulses

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4 Classifications of STRUCTURAL Neurons

  • Anaxonic

  • Bipolar

  • Pseudounipolar

  • Multipolar

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Anaxonic Neurons

Small & found ONLY in CNS

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Bipolar Neurons

Cell body lies b/w the Dendrite & Axons

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Pseudounipolar Neurons

Cell body lies OUTSIDE the plane of the Dendrite & Axons

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Multipolar Neurons

The most common neuron in the CNS (Unidirectional)

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3 FUNCTION Neuron Classifications

  • Sensory

  • Motor

  • Interneurons

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Sensory

  • Form AFFERENT Division of PNS

  • Deliver info abt Internal & External environment to the CNS

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Motor

  • Form EFFERENT Division of CNS

  • Stimulate activity of peripheral motor or organ systems

    • Divided into SOMATIC (body) & VISCERAL (organ) motor

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Interneurons

  • B/w Sensory and Motor neurons

  • Found within brain & Spinal cord

  • Analyze sensory input and organize motor outputs

  • Either EXCITATORY or INHIBITORY based on post synaptic membranes

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Excitability

Ability of the plasma membrane to conduct electrical Impulses

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30

Action Potential

Change in membrane potential AFTER the membrane stimulation reaches THRESHOLD

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Synapse

Site of cellular/neuronal communication

  • May be chemical (VESICULAR) or Electrical

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BOUND tightly together

At an electrical synapse, the PRESYNAPTIC and POSTSYNAPTIC membranes are

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COMMUNICATION Junctions

Allow for passage of the electrical signals b/w cells

  • Elec. Synapses convey info BOTH directions

    • Chem. Synapses CANNOT

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