EARTHSCI REVIEWER FINALS

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41 Terms

1

Zircon Crystal

The oldest material found on Earth, estimated to be 4.3 billion years old.

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2

Prokaryotic Cells

Single-celled organisms that were the initial form of life on Earth, starting around 3.8 billion years ago.

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3

Multicellular Life

Life forms that evolved over a billion years after the emergence of prokaryotic cells.

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4

Arthropods

Early life forms that evolved around 570 million years ago.

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5

Fish

Life forms that evolved around 530 million years ago.

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6

Land and Plants

Life forms that evolved around 475 and 385 million years ago, respectively.

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7

Mammals

Life forms that emerged around 200 million years ago.

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8

Homo Sapiens

The species of modern humans that evolved 200,000 years ago.

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9

Cell

The basic unit of life.

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10

Pre-existing Cells

The concept that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

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11

Creation Theory

The belief that all life forms on Earth were created by a supreme being.

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12

Theory of Abiogenesis

The theory that living things were naturally created from non-living things.

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13

Stanley Miller

The scientist who performed an experiment in 1953 that simulated the conditions for the origin of life on Earth.

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14

Theory of Biogenesis

The theory that living things come from pre-existing living things.

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15

Francesco Redi

A physician and naturalist who conducted experiments that disproved the idea of spontaneous generation.

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16

Louis Pasteur

A French chemist and microbiologist who also disproved the theory of spontaneous generation.

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17

Theory of Catastrophism

The theory that multiple creations and catastrophes have occurred throughout Earth's history.

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18

Characteristics of Living Things

The defining features of living organisms, including cells, growth, response to stimuli, interaction, reproduction, adaptation, and organization.

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19

Metabolism

The chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including anabolism (building up) and catabolism (breaking down).

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20

Growth and Development

The increase in size and complex changes that occur in living organisms.

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21

Stimuli

Signals or changes in the environment that living organisms respond to.

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22

Homeostasis

The internal balance of the body or system of living organisms.

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23

Interactions

The relationships and exchanges that occur among living organisms in an ecosystem.

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24

Reproduction

The ability of living organisms to produce offspring.

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25

Adaptation

The response to stimuli that helps in the survival of an organism.

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26

Evolution

The gradual change in organisms over time in response to a changing environment.

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27

Organization

The hierarchical structure of living organisms, from atoms to molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and systems.

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28

Energy

The ability to do work.

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29

Autotrophs

Organisms that can produce their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

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30

Heterotrophs

Organisms that obtain food by consuming other organisms.

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31

Photosynthesis

The process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose.

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32

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate, the energy-carrying molecule used by cells.

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33

Photosynthetic Pigments

Pigments found in photosynthetic organisms that absorb light energy for photosynthesis.

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34

Chloroplasts

Cell organelles found in plants and algae where photosynthesis takes place.

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35

Photosystems

Groups of molecules involved in photosynthesis.

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36

Light-Dependent Reactions

The first stage of photosynthesis that occurs in the thylakoid of the chloroplast.

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37

Light-Independent Reactions

The second stage of photosynthesis that occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.

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38

Calvin Cycle

The series of reactions in the light-independent stage of photosynthesis that converts carbon dioxide into glucose.

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39

Carbon Fixation

The process of converting carbon dioxide into a stable six-carbon molecule.

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40

Reduction Reactions

The step in the Calvin cycle where ATP and NADPH are used to convert 3-PGA into G3P.

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41

Regeneration of RuBP

The final step in the Calvin cycle where remaining G3P molecules are converted back into RuBP.

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