Specific Evolution Terms

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adaptive radiation

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19 Terms

1

adaptive radiation

speciation occurs at an accelerated rate in a new environment

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2

allopatric speciation

populations are physically isolated from each other

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3

allopolyploidy

chromosomes duplicated between species and are fertile

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4

autopolyploidy

chromosomes double within a species and are often infertile, except in plants and fungi

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5

bottleneck

reduction in alleles due to catastrophe, genetic variation decreases

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6

founder effect

reduction in alleles due to starting a new population, genetic variation decreases

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7

convergent evolution

multiple organisms independently evolve the same characteristic

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8

gene flow

movement of alleles across different populations which increases genetic diversity

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9

genetic drift

random change in allele frequency due to chance event

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10

homologous structure

indicate divergent evolution from a common ancestor

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11

analogous structures/homoplasy

indicate convergent evolution, no recent common ancestor

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12

hybrid zone

different species come in contact and mate resulting in reinforcement, fusion, or stability

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13

paraphyletic

include some but not descendants from a common ancestor

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14

polyphyletic

do not have a recent common ancestor and are placed in different taxa

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15

monophyletic

all descendants of a common ancestor

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16

polyploidy

more than one pair of homologous chromosomes

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17

qualitative variation

discrete variation with distinct states

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18

quantitative variation

continuous variation in appearance or function that is measured and controlled by many genes

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19

sympatric speciation

occurs without a geographical border

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