Psychology test 1

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germinal stage

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Mrs. Shiro

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germinal stage

The period from conception to implantation

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embryonic stage

The prenatal period of development from implantation until abt the 8th week of development

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XY or XX

determines the gender of the baby

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amniotic sac

The environment that the baby lives in, gets nutrition from the placenta, permeable

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umbilical cord

delivers nutrition to baby

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examples of reflexes

-rooting (if you touch a baby’s check they will turn and suck on the air there)

-withdrawal (stick a pin in a baby’s foot and they should move away from the pain)

-moro (hold a baby and pretend to drop it, they want to see a big startle response from it)

-babinski (run a pen down a baby’s foot and its toes should spread and flatten (prep for walking)

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Apgar test

test of reflexes on babies, it’s an innate reaction and if they don’t do it then they could figure out how to do early intervention on them

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fixation time

- The amt of time spent looking at one stimulus instead of another

- 2-month old infants prefer stimuli that resemble a human face

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visual cliff experiments

- 6-8 month old infants develop depth perception and avoid crawling off the “cliff”

- new baby will crawl over plexiglass but veteran crawler will stop at invisible cliff

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Piaget, Freud, Kohlberg & Ericson

stage theorist (development is discontinuous)

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Watson & Skinner

learning theorists/behaviorists (development is continuous)

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Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory

children’s cognitive processes develop in an orderly sequence of stages (noticed kids were making the same mistakes at the same age)

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responding to new stimuli through a reflex or existing habit

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pattern of action/mental structure involved in acquiring or organizing knowledge

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creation of new ways of responding to objects or looking at the world

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Sensorimotor Stage

- Piaget’s theory stage 1

- sensory info, motor activity, exploration, modifying behavior through senses (frown, soothing voice)

- A newborn is capable of assimilation

- object permanence (by abt 8-12 months of age the infant realizes that objects that are removed from sight still exist)

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Preoperational Stage

- Piaget’s theory stage 2

- the use of words and symbols to represent objects and relationships among them

- egocentrism (kid thinks world revolves around them)

- animism (attribute life and consciousness to physical objects like imaginary friends)

- artificialism (belief that environmental events like rain/thunder are human inventions)

- conservation (basic properties of substances remain the same hen you change superficial properties such as shape like water)

- objective responsibility (child judges ppl based on amt of harm done, not intent like child is tripped by someone and falls vs. falls on accident and skins knee)

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Concrete Operational Stage

- Piaget’s theory stage 3

- kids ages 7-12 show the beginnings of the capacity for adult logic

- do better with tangible rather than abstract ideas

- become subjective in their moral judgements, less egocentric

- reversibility (recognition that processes can be reversed like ice melting and then freezing again)

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Formal Operational Stage

- deductive logic, mental trial/error, abstract thought

- capable of hypothetical & deductive reasoning

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Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development

- one must pay attention more to one’s own conscience than to law/authority in determining what is right and wrong

- sequence: preconventional, conventional, postconventional

- Heinz dilemma (poor man can’t afford treatment to cure wife so he stole it)

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Kohlberg Preconventional level

Applies to most children through the age of 9

Stage 1- obedience & punishment

Stage 2 – Good behavior allows ppl to satisfy needs of self/others

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Kohlberg Conventional level

Moral reasoning is judged by conformity to conventional standards of right and wrong

Stage 3 – moral behavior meets the expectations of others

Stage 4 – moral behavior is doing duty and showing respect for authority

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Kohlberg Postconventional level

Moral reasoning is more complex and focuses on dilemmas in which individual needs are pitted against the need to maintain social order and on personal conscience

Stage 5 – moral judgments based on rules that maintain social order

Stage 6 – ppl must follow universal ethical principles & own conscience

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Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

- social and emotional development in childhood

- attachment

- 8 stages of human life

  • if one fails at the conflict in any stage, they wont properly develop the skill acquired in that stage

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Stage 1: Trust vs Mistrust

- babies depend on their caretakers therefore their trust is based on the care they receive

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Stage 2: Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt

- development of self-control

  • leads to independence (ex. potty training)

- if not completed can lead to dependence and self esteem issues

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Stage 3: Initiative vs Guilt

- use their power and control as they interact socially with other kids in play situations

- leadership skills

  • if not, then leads to guilt & lack of initiative

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Stage 4: Industry vs Inferiority

- getting involved in tasks and mastering basic technology

- gain confidence & pride in their actions/accomplishments (ex. participation trophies)

  • if not, then they will doubt themselves

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Stage 5: Identity vs Role diffusion

- adolescence

- use social experiences to create career goals & sense of self

- strong in indentity and stay true to themselves

  • if not, then leads to “role confusion”


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Stage 6: Intimacy vs Isolation

- young adult

- relationships develop & sexual love

- intimacy and strong relationships

  • if not, then leads to isolation

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Stage 7: Generativity v Stagnation

- middle adult

- guiding others & being creative

- individuals trying to better society

- accomplishment OR no involvement with society/others

  • could lead to mid life crisis

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Stage 8: Integrity vs Despair

- late adult

- accepting life’s cycle

- wisdom & dignity

  • if not, then leads to feeling as though they have wasted their life and will be despaired

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patterns of attachment

- secure (mild protest mother’s departure, kids are happier, more sociable and cooperative)

- avoidant (least distressed by mother’s departure, play by themselves & ignore mother’s return)

- ambivalent/resistant (most emotional showing severe signs of distress by mother’s departure, alternate between clinging and pushing mother away)

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3 Stages of Attachment

- Initial-Preattachment phase (indiscriminant attachment)

- Attachment-in-the-making phase (preference for familiar figures)

- Clear-cut-Attachment phase (intensified dependence on primary caregiver)

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Theories of Attachment

- learned through experience

- skin contact

- it is an instinct

  • critical period in which animal is sensitive to stimuli (if it moves it must be mother)

  • also called imprinting

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Rhesus monkey experiment

- research with the wire mesh and terrycloth mothers demonstrated that monkeys in danger prefer the terrycloth mother

  • inborn need for contact comfort

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Aspects of parental behavior

  1. strictness

  2. demands for a child to achieve intellectual, emotional and social maturity

  3. communication ability

    1. warmth & involvement

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Parenting styles

- Authoritative (strict but willing to listen, most competent kids)

- Authoritarian (strict and use force, poor communication, cold/rejecting)

- Permissive (easygoing, warm and supportive, poor communication)

- Uninvolved (leave kids on their own, little warmth/encouragement)

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Adolescense (storm and stress)

- period of transition

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Adolescence: Cognitive

- Piaget’s stage of Formal Operations

  • abstract thought

- Adolescent Egocentrism

  • press for acceptance

- imaginary audience

- personal fable

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imaginary audience

belief that other ppl are as concerned with our thoughts/behavior as we are

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personal fable

- belief that our feelings/ideas are special

- we are unique

- showing off & taking risks

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Adolescence: Moral

- Kohlberg’s post-conventional level of moral reasoning

- conscience is the highest moral authority

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Adolescence: Social and Emotional

- need to take into account individual differences and cultural variations

- deaths result from: crashes, homicide, suicide, other

- sociocultural influences have a greater impact on activity levels than hormonal changes

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Adulthood: Cognitive

- height of creativity, memory functioning & intelligence

- everything declines with age

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crystallized intelligence

represents a lifetime

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Adulthood: Social and Emotional

- most fluid

- healthier as they advance

- more productive and have better relationships

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Erikson Adulthood

- young (intimacy vs isolation)

- middle (generativity vs stagnation)

- late (ego integrity vs despair)

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5 stages of dying

  1. denial

  2. anger

  3. bargaining

  4. depression

  5. acceptance

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