7.1 - Theories of Motivation

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Basic Motivational Concepts

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32 Terms

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Basic Motivational Concepts

  • Motivation

  • Primary needs

  • Secondary needs

  • Incentive

  • Extrinsic motivation

  • Intrinsic motivation

  • Overjustification effect

  • Self-efficacy

  • Achievement motivation

  • Law of effect

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Motivation

need/desire that energizes/directs behavior

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Primary needs

innate/unlearned (hunger, thirst, need for warmth)

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4

Secondary needs

psychological (social approval, belongingness, love)

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Incentive

any stimuli that motivates a behavior

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6

Extrinsic motivation

performing a behavior for a desired outcome

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7

Intrinsic motivation

performing behavior for a desired outcome (reading a book for getting good grades)

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Overjustification effect

extrinsic incentives decreases intrinsic motivation to perform a task

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9

Self - efficacy

belief one can execute a task successfully

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Achievement motivation

desire for significant accomplishment for mastery/high standard/control

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Law of effect

Edward Thorndike believed behaviors leading to desirable outcome more likely to occur (eating, drinking, exercising, taking a drug reaches homeostasis, so it will be repeated)

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Motivational Theories

  • Drive- reduction theory

  • Drive

  • Drive reducing behaviors

  • Arousal theory

  • Yerkes - Dodson Law

  • Evolutionary theory of motivation

  • instinct theory

  • incentive theory

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13

Drive - reduction theory

people are motivated to reduce our drives

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Drive

tension of arousal caused by biological/psychological needs

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Drive reducing behaviors

we are motivated to engage in behaviors that reduce drives in order to maintain homeostasis (balanced internal state)

  • Need: food → drive: hunger → drive reducing behavior: eating → homeostasis: not hungry

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Examples of Drive reducing behaviors

  • Banana bread makes you stand by the oven

  • Good grades make you study

  • Reading a book for enjoyment

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Arousal theory

we are motivated to behave to reach on optimal level of arousal

  • High optimal level - AICE and AP

  • Low optimal level - regular and honors

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Yerkes - Dodson Law

little arousal → no motivation

high arousal → anxiety hurts performance

  • Brilliant Student takes easy classes and then is not motivated to try in them, since so easy

  • Dumb student takes classes to challenging for her, and skips school because stress to hgh

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19

Evolutionary Theory of Motivation

individuals are motivated to engage in behaviors that increase their genetic fitness

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Instinct theory

we are biologically wired with innate patterns of behavior

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Incentive theory

motivation caused by incentives promising award/avoidance of punishment

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Classic Research Findings

  • Ancel Keys

  • Virginia Johnson and William Masters

  • Individuals are socially motivated to avoid ostracism and criticism from society

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Ancel Keys

discovered men that semi-starved for 6 months became sluggish and very focused on food

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Virginia Johnson and William Masters

developed the sexual response cycle

  • excitement → plateau → organsm → resolution

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Major Research Contributors

  • William James - James - Lang Theory

  • Alfred Kinsey - studied sexual psychology of both sexes

  • Abraham Maslow - hierarchy of needs pyramid

  • Stanley Schacter

  • Hans Selye

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James-Lange Theory (7.1)

  • William James and Carl Lange

  • We feel emotions because of biological (physiological) changes caused by stress

  • FIRST body changes → THEN recognize the feeling after

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Studied Sexual Psychology of Both Sexes

  • Alfred Kinsey

    • Began study of sex in 1938 by collecting confidential interviews of sex histories

      • By 1950s, interviewed 18,000

    • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948)

    • Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)

    • 0 is exclusively heterosexual, 6 exclusively homosexual, and 7 is asexual

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Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid

  • Abraham Maslow

  • We are motivated by needs but all needs aren’t equal

  • Driven to satisfy lower level needs first

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The levels lower to highest of the Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid

  1. Physiological Needs

  2. Safety Needs

  3. Belongingness and Love Needs

  4. Esteem Needs

  5. Self-Actualization

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30

Schacter-Singer Theory (7.1)

  • “Two Factor Theory”

  • Stanley Schachter explains emotions more completely than James- Lange Theory

  • How we INTERPRET our experience also matters

    • Emotional experience requires a conscious label or interpretation of the arousal

  • Biology and cognition INTERACT with each other to increase the experience

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31

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) (7.1)

  • Hans Selye

    • Describes our response to a stressful event

    • 3 Stages

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3 Stages of GAS

  1. Alarm

  2. Resistance

  3. Exhaustion

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