Biology Exam 2 part 1

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What are some characteristics of life?

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What are some characteristics of life?

reproduction, movement, response to external stimuli. composed of cells, maintain homeostasis, metabolism

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Homeostasis

Maintenance of a constant internal environment despite changes in external environment

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Why are zombie not alive?

don't grow, respond to limited stimuli, limited homeostasis does not promote healing, eat but do not metabolize

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Why are mules not "alive"?

can't reproduce, no evolution of populations,

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What are the characteristic of a virus?

common set of biological molecules, reproduce by infecting cells of other organism, no metabolism, no homeostasis

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Which substance is a molecule rather than an element?

carbon dioxide, made up of atoms combined together, one carbon two oxygen

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Elements

fundamental forms of matter, composed of atoms that can not be broken down by normal means

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Atom

smallest unit of an element

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Protons

Positive Charge

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Neutrons

Neutral=no charge

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Electrons

negative charge

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Neutral Atom

equal numbers of protons and neutrons

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Ions

atoms with a difference in number of protons and electrons

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Why is water able to dissolve substances so well?

waters polarity attracts other polar molecules

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What type of chemical bond shown in this diagram causes different water molecules to be attracted to one another?

Hydrogen bonds

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Water

is a molecule, a good solvent, facilitates chemical reactions, moderates temperature

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Molecule

two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

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What makes up a water molecule?

2 hydrogen, 1 oxygen

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Hydrogen Bonding

weak attraction between molecules, slight negative oxygen attracted to slightly positive hydrogen

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Nonpolar molecules

electrons shared equally

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Hydrophobic

water fearing, molecules don't dissolve in water

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Solution:

a chemical mixture

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Solute

a substance that dissolves in a solvent

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Solvent

substance that dissolves solute

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Are macromolecules hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

hydrophilic

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What can water's polar structure not disolve?

nonpolar (hydrophobic) molecules

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Chemical Reactions

changes in chemical composition of substances

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Reactants

starting materials in a chemical reaction

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Products

result of chemical reaction

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Why can water can absorb a lot of heat?

hydrogen bonds are disrupted first, heat raises water temperature

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Bad Science

alternate hypothesis not explored, scientific method not followed, bias not reduced/eliminated

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Pseudoscience

information presented as science but does not hold up to scientific scrutiny

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What's an example of Pseudoscience?

the bermuda triangle

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What might be a cause for the "mysterious" ship/plane disapearences in the bermuda triangle?

bubbles reduce density of water, causing ships to sink, methane sets on fire from lightning, causing planes to go down

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Organic Chemistry

chemistry pertaining to biology

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Carbon Containing Molecules

carbon interacts with elements to produce complex molecules

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Covalent Bonds

share electrons

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single bonds

one pair of electrons

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double bonds

two pairs of electrons

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Ionic Bond

electrons transferred between atoms

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How many bonds can carbon form?

four bonds

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What category of macromolecules includes testosterone and estrogen?

Lipids

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Macromolecules

large organic cells, found in living organisms

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What can macromolecules be found in?

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

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Carbohydrates formula and use

Carbon oxygen and hydrogen (CH2O), major source of energy for cells

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What are carbohydrates made of?

sugar subunits

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Proteins

required for a wide variety of processes, structural component of cells, muscles made of protein

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Enzymes

proteins that accelerate chemical reactions that build and break molecules in cells

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What is protein made of?

amino acid

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what are Amino Acids made of?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

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Peptide

short amino acid chain

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Polypeptide

long amino acid chain

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Protein

one or more polypeptide (usually >50 amino acids)

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What do different amino acid combinations equal?

different shapes and properties for proteins

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Lipid

comprised mostly of hydrocarbons, partially or entirely hydrophobic

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What are the three types of lipids?

fats, steroids, phospholipids

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Fats

3 carbon skeleton and 3 fatty acid tails

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Steriods

4 fused carbon rings, ex. cholesterol, sex horomones

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Phospholipids

3 carbon skeleton and 2 fatty acid tails and a phosphate head group

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What is special about phospholipids?

hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail

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Nucleic Acids

made of nucleotide monomer subunits

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Nucleotide

sugar+phosphate+nitrogenous base

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RNA

ribonucleic acid, ribose sugar, single stranded, helps cells make proteins

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DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, stores genetic info, deoxyribose sugar, rungs of nitrogen base pairs

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What are the four complementary nitrogen bases?

adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine

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Bases form hydrogens with a complimentary base?

A bonds with T G bonds with C

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True or False: Scientific evidence shows that the animo acid tryptophan in turk is what makes you drowsy on thanksgiving.

false

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Theory of evolution

explains how a singular ancestor 4 billion years ago gave rise to all life

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All living things are made up of what?

cells

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Prokaryotes

Bacteria, small, microscopic, genetic material not in a nucleus, no organelles, cell walls (outside cell membrane)

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Eukaryotic

Larger, complex, genetic material in nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, some have cell walls (fungi and plants)

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What lead to all species on earth?

our common ancestor from 4 billion years ago

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About how many species are there?

1 trillion

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Natural Selection

process of gradual change that occurs over time, individual organisms vary from each other

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What is the main mechanism behind evolution?

natural selection

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Evolution misconceptions

evolution is not a series of steps leading to increased complexity, there us no pressure on "lower" organisms that led to evolution of higher organisms

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What is the only cell visible to the human eye?

ovum, female egg cell

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Average number of human cells in a person

30 trillion

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how many pounds of bacteria are on you right now?

3-5 pounds

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What did the Miller-Urey Experiment discover?

Experimentally produced a bunch of organic molecules, then used those to make more molecules and amino acids

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Karolina Sputova and Irep Gozen

Protocells spontaneously form of phospholipids on a mineral surface, inside where smaller bubbles (organelles), take up dyes (membrane transport)

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RNA world hypothesis

self replicating RNA existed before evolution of DNA and Proteins

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Last Universal common ancestor

most recent population of organisms from which all organisms descended

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Stromatolites

layered sedimentary formations created by photosynthetic bacteria

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