AP Biology - Unit 6: Gene Expression and Biotechnology (overview)

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34 Terms

1

central dogma

DNA-transcription-RNA-translation-protein-phenotypes

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2

RNA polymerase

enzyme that makes mRNA

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3

mRNA

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

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4

mRNA editing

done before mRNA can leave nucleus, includes removing introns, keeping exons (done by splicosome) and addition of GTP5 cap and poly-A tail

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5

What happens when mRNA gets to the cytoplasm

ribosome reads mRNA with EPA (arrival, processing, exit) complex, read in codons (groups of 3)(start = aug end = uaa, uag, uga), tRNA has anti-codons and amino acid that build the primary protien structure

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6

mutation

change in a DNA sequence

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7

muatin to DNA

significant impact

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8

mutation to RNA

minor impact

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9

types of causes of mutation

induced and spontanius

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10

induced muaiton

outside source (radiation, chemicals, infectious agent)

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11

spontanious mutation

(inside factors(dna copying

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12

types of mutation

silent, missense, nonsense, frameshift

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13

silent mutation

A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.

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14

missense mutation

A base-pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.

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15

frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

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16

nonsense mutation

A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.

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17

what is a virus

not considered alive, genetic info wrapped in protein coat

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18

prokaryote virus

bacteriophage, only affects bacteria, two types: virulent and temperate

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19

virulent bacteriophages

bacteriophages that replicate by lytic cycle and kill their host cells by copying DnA until host lyces

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20

temperate bacteriophage

Bacteriophage that may enter an inactive phase (lysogenic cycle) in which the host cell replicates and passes on the bacteriophage DNA for generations before the phage becomes active and kills the host (lytic cycle)

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21

eukayote viruses

affects us, can be single or double stranded, has lipid layer

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22

Dna virus

lysogenic, doesnt mutate much, herpes, poxs

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23

rna viruses

high mutatin, lytic cycle, common cold/covid

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24

retroviruses

use reverse transcriptase to copy their RNA genome into DNA

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25

why is gene expression necessary

able to turn on/off, allows or specialized cells,

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26

operon

a group of genes that operate together by a switch

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27

prog

Promoter, Repressor, Operator, Gene

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28

inducable operon

usually off but can be stimulated when a specific molecule interacts with a regulator protein

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29

repressable operon

transcription is usually on but it an be inhibited

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30

Eukaryote gene expression

few have operon system

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32

dna bends so regulatory box and activator protien can connect with TF and rna poly through mediator

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why complex

tightly regulate, less mutation

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34

teratoma

body cant regulate genes, tumor

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