Exam 3 by Branna Campbell

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Mutualism is ________.

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Mutualism is ________.

positive species interaction

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Competition

-/-

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Neutral

0

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Commensalism

+/0

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Amensalism

-/0

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Predation

+/-

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Parasitism

+/-

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Parasatoidism

+/-

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Coevolution

the process in which two species undergo reciprocal evolutionary change through natural selection

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Qualitative natures of species interactions can...

Be altered if the background environment changes

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Niche

range of physical and chemical conditions under which that species can survive and produce (ex: hydra living is a specific temperature, salinity, and pH)

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N-dimentional hypervolume

species that coexist differ in some aspect of their niche

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Fundamental role

The environmental conditions under which a species can survive and reproduce; sometimes called a physiological niche; the set of environmental conditions under which a species can persist

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Realized niche

Portion of the fundamental niche that a species actually uses as a result of interactions with other species

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Competition can restrict the...

Fundamental niche

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What can restrict the realized niche?

-Presence of predators or pathogens -mutualism/commensalism

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Alpha = 1

Intraspecific and interspecific are equal to each other

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Alpha is

Competition coefficient

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Lotka-Voltera competition model: interspecific competition

  • simplest and best known two species model of competition

  • provides foundation for many other ecological models

  • predicts a full range of outcomes, depending on the values of K's and alpha's

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Competition exclusion

One species eliminates the other

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Stable coexistence

Persist together forever

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Unstable coexistence

Persist together until perturbed

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Interspecific competition affects...

The populations of 2 or more species adversely (-/-)

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Intraspecific and Interspecific competition are likely occurring

Simultaneously

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2 forms of Interspecific competition

Exploitation and interference

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Most types of Interspecific interactions can be classified as 1/6 types

  • consumption competition -preemption competition -overgrowth competition -chemical interaction competition -territorial competition -encounter competition

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consumption competition

Individuals of one species inhibit individuals of another by consuming a shared resource (squirrels, birds, etc eating acorns)

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Preemption competition

Individuals of one species prevent occupation of an area by individuals of another species (sessile organism such as barnacles and clams)

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character displacement

increased ecological differences between species in regions where they occur together

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ecological release

the expansion of a species niche under conditions where their competitor species is absent; niche of the competitively-inferior species expands in the absence of the competitively-superior species

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observational competition studies

  • negative correlations between species

  • attributed to present or past competition ("ghost of competition past")

  • cant determine cause and effect

  • other factors may be involved

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experimental competition studies

  • addition/removal studies

  • manipulate presence and/or density of would-be competitors

  • must account for density effects

  • provides strong interference (strong evidence for or against)

  • difficult to do for many species

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Connell, 1961

  • determined factors regulating distribution of Cthamalus stellatus and Semibalanus balanoides

  • one of the first studies to show interspecific competition through manipulative experiments

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fundamental niche depends on...

physical (abiotic) conditions

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realized niche depends on...

biotic and abiotic conditions

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competitive exclusion principle

states that complete competitors cannot coexist

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complete competitors

two distinct species that live in the same place and have exactly the same ecological requirements

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competitive exclusion requires that...

  • competitors require exactly the same resources

  • environmental conditions remain constant

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competition is influenced by

non-resource factors

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environmental features that are not resources can...

influence the outcome of competition between species (ex: trout species)

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temporal variation in the environment...

influences competitive interactions

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why are there so many species?

  • non-resource variability

  • resources varying in time

  • resources can be a variety of things, water, light, food, microhabitats

  • disturbance

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predation

consumption of one living organisms by another

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predators are

heterotrophs

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carnivores

consume animal tissue

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herbivores

consume plant or algal tissue

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omnivores

consume plant and animal tissue

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true predator

kills its prey immediately upon capture, more of less

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predators consume multiple prey organisms and function as ____________ throughout their lifetimes

agents of mortality

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lethal effects

  • predators directly affect mortality rates through total combustion

  • prey directly affect predator birth/death rates

  • form modeled by L-V predator/prey model

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predators may_______ affect prey birth/mortality rates through partial consumption (herbivory or parasitism)

directly

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predators may __________ affect pre birth/ mortality rates through effects on prey behavior

indirectly

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Lotka and Volterra on predation

  • developed 2 linked equations, one for prey and one for predator

  • plot results on a phase plane

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Lotka-Volterra Predator- Prey Model

<p>predicts population cycles</p>

predicts population cycles

<p>predicts population cycles</p>
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high latitude animals often have

population cycles

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Optimal foraging: Type 1

  • number of prey consumed is linearly related to prey population size

  • more prey available, more are eaten

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prey switching

predator doest eat the prey at low densities, relying on a different food source instead

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apparent competition

a shared predator can make it appear that two species compete when they dont; two species that do not compete directly for resources affect each other indirectly because they share the same predator

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competitive release

a predator can reverse competitive exclusion

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trophic cascade

a predator of an herbivore can help a plant (the enemy of my enemy is my friend)

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chemical defenses

Compounds released by prey to defend themselves from predators.

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prey weapons

prey having physical defense mechanisms like hard shells or thorns to protect or fight their predators

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plant defenses: physical and chemical

plants evolved spines, thorns, and chemical toxins, such as morphine, strychnine, and nicotine, against herbivores.

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feigning death

faking death

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predator swamping

a prey strategy in which the per capita predation rate is reduced at high prey density

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schooling, flocking, group living

prey that tend to group together in order to survive (ex: prairie dogs, birds)

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escape tactics

being fast and/or maneuverable

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camoflauge & startling displays

an adaptation that allows an organism to blend in with its envoronment

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symbiosis

the intimate and protracted association between two or more individuals of different species; can be positive, negative, or neutral

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all parasitic relationships are...

symbiotic relationships

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larger species is typically considered the...

host species

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parasitism

  • feed on the live host organism

  • an intimate relationship, with the parasite living on or in the host at least part of its life cycle

  • actively is harmful but generally not lethal, at least in the short term

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parasitoids

  • attack the prey indirectly by laying eggs on the host's body

  • and intimate association with a single host

  • the eggs hatch and the larvae feed on the host, eventually killing it

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parasites increase their fitness by using the host in a close, prolonged association for

food, habitat, & dispersal; usually dont kill the host

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Host fitness is often decreased by the parasite through

  • stunted growth

  • emaciation

  • behavior modification

  • sterility

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parasites generally

  • are much smaller than the host

  • are highly specialized

  • reproduce more quickly and in larger numbers than the host

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parasites are found in many groups such as

  • viruses

  • bacteria

  • protists

  • fungi

  • plants

  • invertebrates

  • vertebrates

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facultative symbiosis

species can survive individually when separated

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obligate symbiosis

species can not survive without the relationship

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generalist symbiosis

interaction can be among many different species

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specialist symbiosis

interactions can only be among a small set of species

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invasive species

a non-native species that can sores on its own and does harm to the environment

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species interactions help determine invasion success through

  • lack of competition

  • release from predators

  • mutualism

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species composition

Biological structure of a community

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absolute abundance

number of individuals of each species in a community can be counted or estimated

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relative abundance

the proportion of each species relative to the total number of individuals of all species living in the community

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relative abundance equation

pi = ni/N

pi = proportion of individuals of species I

ni = number of individuals of species I

N = total number of individuals of all species

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rank abundance diagram

plots rank abundance (x-axis) against corresponding relative abundance (y-axis)

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species richness

the number of species in the community (long curve)

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species evenness

how equally individuals are distributed among the species (flat curve)

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species dominance

when a single or few species predominant within a community and therefore have a large impact on the functioning of the ecosystem

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diversity

multiple indices that incorporate both evenness and richness into one number

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Alpha > 1

interspecific competition > interspecific competition

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Alpha < 1

interspecific < infraspecific competition

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overgrowth competition

individuals of one species grow over individuals of other species, inhibiting access to a resource (taller plants shading shorter plants)

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chemical interaction competition

individuals of one species release growth inhibitors or toxins that inhibits or kills other species (allelopathy in plants- secretion of chemicals that inhibit germination of other species)

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territorial competition

behavior of one species that excludes another species from a specific location that is defended as a territory ( a bird keeping other birds from nesting in its territory)

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encounter competition

non-territorial encounters of individuals of different species affect one or more of the species involved (scavengers fighting over a dead animal carcass)

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intraspecific competition: logistic growth rate equation

(dN1/dt) = rN1 (1-N1/K1)

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dN1/dt =

population growth over time

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