Anatomy of the Respiratory System

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nasal cavity

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Health

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43 Terms

1

nasal cavity

nose

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2

oral cavity

mouth

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3

3 sections of the pharynx

nasal pharynx, oropharynx, laryngo pharynx

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4

larynx

where vocal cords are located

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5

trachea

airway; behind sternum

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6

main bronchi

where trachea splits

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7

upper respiratory tract

nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx

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8

lower respiratory tract

larynx, trachea, main bronchi, lungs

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9

nares

nostrils

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10

nasal conchae

bone projections inside nose

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11

pharyngeal tonsils

located in nasopharynx, behind nose

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12

bronchioles

smallest of the passages

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13

alveoli

fill with air, oxygen exchange; look like bunch of grapes

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14

tree analogy

trachea- tree trunk

main bronchi- largest branches

bronchioles- twigs

alveoli- leaves

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15

diffusion

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between red blood cells and air, or cells of our tissue

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16

cortex

conscious part of brain; can send signals to stop breathing for a short period of time

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17

chemical receptors

alert our brainstem when CO2 levels increase and oxygen levels become dangerously low

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18

apena

not breathing

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19

hyperpnea

abnormally rapid or deep breathing

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20

hypopnea

really shallow breathing

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21

tachypnea

breathing more rapidly(more than 20 beats/min)

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22

bradypnea

slow breathing(less than 10 beats/min)

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23

Kussmaul breathing

a pattern of deep breathing, associated with people who have diabetes

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24

Cheyne-Stokes breathing

irregular breathing pattern; problem with brainstem, it doesn’t recognize high CO2 levels, take deep breaths to get rid of it, then levels become low, so they take shallow breaths; constant pattern of deep and shallow breaths

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25

flail chest

result of trauma, after breaking 4-5 ribs, the ribs collapse when you breathe; result= can’t breathe

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26

hyperventilation

breathing more than you should, can make you pass out

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27

hypoventilation

not breathing enough; oxygen levels get low, CO2 level gets high

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28

anoxia

no oxygen

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29

hypoxia

low levels of oxygen

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30

hypercarbia

high levels of CO2, often occurs with hypoxia

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31

ABG

arterial blood gas, what is the pressure of CO2 vs oxygen

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32

PaO2

partial pressure of arterial oxygen; between 75-100 when breathing regular air

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33

PaCO2

partial pressure of CO2; between 35-45

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34

room air

normal air, 21% oxygen

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35

FiO2

fraction of inspired oxygen, measure extra/supplemental air in liters per min, each liter per min= +7%

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36

RR/F

respiratory rate/frequency; breathe 12-15 times per min

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37

Tidal Volume

how much air we move in and out with each breath; half stays in airway, half gets to alveoli(500 mL)

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38

Minute Volume

how much air we get in an out per min, about 6000 mL per min

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39

PIP

peak inspiratory pressure, how much pressure is used to push air into lungs, generally 35-40 cm of water

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40

PEEP

peak end expiratory pressure, pressure we leave in lungs after exhaling; when on ventilator= 5, in a hospital, you don’t let the lungs deflate so the alveoli don’t close

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41

Crackles

little water droplets in alveoli, breathing moves droplet and it makes noise as it covers the opening of the alveoli

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42

stridor

wheezing noise when someone breathes in

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43

wheezing

low pitched or high pitched, constriction of airway, whistling when someone breathes out

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