Mycology Exam 1

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Monokaryon

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71 Terms

1

Monokaryon

one nucleus per hyphal compartment

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2

Dikaryon

2 nuclei per hyphal compartment

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3

Organelles

Typical eukaryotic assemblage with Golgi equivalents and microbodies

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Golgi equivalents

single fold golgi

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5

Microbodies

function in fatty acid degradation and nitrogen metabolism

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Spitzenkƶrper

aggregation of vesicles associated with growing hyphal tips

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Spore

-minute propagative unit that functions as a seed but doesn't contain a pre-formed embryo

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8

Heterotrophic

Organisms that obtain their nutrients or food from consuming other organisms.

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9

Saprobes

organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter

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10

Secretive/Absorptive nutrition

  1. Hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes secreted

  2. Enzymes degrade substances in the environment

  3. Degraded nutrients are absorbed into cell via endocytosis

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Cell wall of Fungi

well defined complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins and contains chitin and one of the major components are glucans and components can change throughout life cycle and between species

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12

Glucans

polymers of glucose

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13

AAA Lysine Biosynthesis

Can make lysine in their bodies

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14

Hypha

basic cellular unit of filamentous fungi and they may be septate or coenocytic (aseptate)

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15

Septate hyphae

contain cross-walls

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Coenocytic hyphae

hyphae that contain no septa and appear as long, continuous cells with many nuclei

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17

Mycelium

densely branched network of the hyphae of a fungus

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Sporocarp

any complex fungal structure that contains or bears spores (where tissue differentiation happens)

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19

How to classify diversity?

Ecology, Morphology, Phylogenetics

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20

Challenges with classifying with morphology

Difficult to differentiate between homology and homoplasy

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21

Homology

similarity due to common ancestry

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22

Homoplasy

similarity of characters that evolved independently (product of conversion evolution)

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23

Phenetics

classification of organisms based on phenotypic traits

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24

Phylogenetics

The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms

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25

Zoosprangium

spore case

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26

Oomycetes ("Water molds")

~700 species -Mycelial (coenocytic) -Zoosporangium -Zoospore with two anterior, heterokont flagella (unequal length) -no sporocarp production -aquatic and terrestrial

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27

Slime molds

~850 species -Dictyostelia = cellular slime molds (have septate hyphae) -Myxogastria = plasmodial slime molds (have coenocytic hyphae) -no cell wall -terrestrial

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28

Dictyostelia

cellular slime molds (have septate hyphae)

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29

Myxogastria

plasmodial slime molds (have coenocytic hyphae)

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30

Cryptomycota

~30 species -unicellular -zoospore OR polar filament -ALL intracellular parasites -Highly reduced

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Microsporidia

~1500 species -unicellular -zoospore OR polar filament -ALL intracellular parasites -Highly reduced

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32

Chytridiomycota

~700 species

  • unicellular to mycelial (coenocytic)

  • zoospore with single posterior flagellum

  • no sporocarp production

  • aquatic and terrestrial

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Blastocladiomycota

~200 spp.

  • Mycelial (coenocytic)

  • Zoospores w/single posterior flagellum

  • Complex life cycles

  • Aquatic or terrestrial

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34

Zoopagomycota

~400 species

  • Mycelium (coenocytic)

  • Most pathogens of animals or mycoparasites

  • Sexual reproduction via Zygosporangium

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Mucoromycota

~600 species

  • Coenocytic mycelium

  • Sexual reproduction viz zygosporangia -> zygospores

  • Many saprobes and soil fungi

  • Arbuscular mycorrhizae

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36

Basidiomycota

~25,000 species

  • Septate mycelium

  • Clamp connections

  • Dikaryotic mycelium

  • Production of basidiospores on a basidium

  • Production of complex sporocarps

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37

Ascomycota

~35,000 species

  • Septate mycelia

  • Monokaryotic, Haploid mycelia

  • Production of ascospores in an ascus

  • Production of complex sporocarps

  • Often dominant asexual reproduction

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Diversity of Basidiomycota

~25,000 described species

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Growth forms of Basidiomycota

Filamentous to yeast

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40

Reproductive structures of Basidiomycota

Lacking sporocarps to highly developed fruiting bodies

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Nutritional Modes of Basidiomycota

Saprobic: Eating of dead organic matter Biotrophic: parasitic Necrotrophic: parasite that kills its host and eats the dead matter

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Basidiomycota Symbiosis

Mycorrhizae, insect symbionts, plant & animal pathogens, etc

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Dikaryon

2 separate but compatible nuclei in each cell or compartment (unique to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota)

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Synapomorphy

a characteristic present in an ancestral species and shared exclusively (in more or less modified form) by its evolutionary descendants

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Basidium

-Synapomorphy of Basidiomycota

  • Specialized hyphal tip

  • Site of meiosis

  • Products of meiosis = basidiospores

  • Usually located in specialized regions or tissues (e.g. gills or pores)

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46

Stages of Basidium

  1. Probasidium = (n+n to 2n) - site of karyogamy

  2. metabasidium = (2n to n+n+n+n) - site of meiosis

  3. mature basidium - basidiospores produced exogenously

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47

Sterigma(ta)

Section between basidium and basidiospores

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48

Holobasidium

aseptate basidium

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Phragmobasidium

basidium with septations

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Basidiospores

  • one to several haploid nuclei per spore (1-2 most common)

  • 2-8 spores per basidium (4 most common)

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51

Ballistospores

forcibly ejected basidiospores

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Statismospores

passively ejected basidiospores that are symmetrically situated on sterigmata

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53

Amyloid spores

blue-black in iodine

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54

Dextrinoid spores

red-brown in iodine

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55

Cystidium

Sterile cell occurring amongst basidia along the hymenium

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Hymenium

Fertile portion of mushrooms where spores are produced

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Clamp connections

hyphal extension in opposite orientation of growth and function in maintaining the Dikaryon in Basidiomycota

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Basidiomycota Life Cycle

  1. Sporocarp (n+n)

  2. Gilled Hymenophore (n+n)

  3. Gill (n+n)

  4. Basidium (n+n -> 2n -> n+n+n+n)

  5. Basidiospore (n)

  6. Monokaryon (n)

  7. Fusion of monokaryons (n -> n+n)

  8. Clamp connections (n+n)

  9. Dikaryon (n+n)

  10. Mycelium (n+n)

  11. Sporocarp primordia (n+n)

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59

Hymenophore

hymenium-bearing structure of a fungal fruiting body

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60

Basidioma(ta)

formal term used to designate to basidiocarp or sporocarp of basidiomycetes (fruiting body)

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61

Pileus

cap or upper surface of basidiomata

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62

Stipe

the stalk of a mushroom (can be central, eccentric, lateral, absent and solid, hollow, or stuffed)

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Gleba

enclosed spore mass of gasteromycetes

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Peridium

outer tissue that encloses gleba of gasteromycetes, homologous to pileus of mushroom, one to many layers

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Veils

-Universal veil (volva and scales) -Partial veil (annulus/skirt)

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66

Pucciniomycotina

-Rusts, marine yeasts -teliospore with phragmobasidium -simple septa -septal pore occlusions

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Ustilaginomycotina

-Smut, bunts, yeasts -teliospore with phragmobasidium or holobasidium -"smut septa"

  • septal pore cap

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68

Agaricomycotina

-Mushrooms, jelly fungi, conks, coral, crusts, puffballs

  • holobasidium (main) or phragmobasidium

  • Dolipore septa

  • Perforated and nonperforated septal pore cap

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69

Resupinate

lying flat on the substratum without a stalk or well defined cap

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70

Light spore print

white, yellow, pink, lilac

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Dark spore print

black, purple, brown, red, rust, green

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