Ancient Egypt Study Guide

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The Gift of the Nile

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The Gift of the Nile

The gift of the Nile was Egypt

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Length of the Nile

4,132 miles long

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Nile as Transportation

A reliable source of transportation between Upper and Lower Egypt

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4

Upper Nile

The river area in the south, and its elevation is higher

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5

Lower Nile

To the North and is near the sea

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Cataract

A point where the river starts to fan out

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7

Narmer

The king of Egypt that was responsible for unifying Upper and Lower Egypt

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8

Unification of Egypt

3000 B.C.

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9

Pharaohs

A king of ancient Egypt, that was also considered a god

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10

Theocracy

Type of government where rule is based on religious authority

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11

Pyramids

A massive structure with a rectangular base and four triangular sides, a burial place for dead pharaohs

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Great Pyramid of Giza

The largest Egyptian pyramid, made with limestone

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2 million limestone blocks

The blocks were stacked in precision to create the Great Pyramid of Giza

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14

Re

The sun god

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15

Osiris

The god of the dead

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Isis

Most important goddess, represented the most ideal wife and mother

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17

Egyptian Total Gods

More than 2,000 Gods and Goddesses

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18

Egyptian Afterlife

Belief in life after death

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Judgment of Life

Egyptians believed they would be judged for their deeds when they died

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Anubis

The go and guide to the underworld

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21

Devourer of Souls

The Devourer of Souls would pounce on and gobble up any person's heart that exceeded the scale

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22

Mummification

The process of embalming and drying corpses to prevent them from decaying

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Book of the Dead

A collection of texts like: hymns, prayers, and magic spells that will help guide a person into the afterlife

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King Tut

Known for his famous death mask that covered his head

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King Tut's Tomb

King Tut's tomb was the last one made of gold and he was one of the first ever perfectly preserved mummies

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Tomb Raiders

People who would rob things from out of the tomb

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Egyptian Society

5 levels: Kings and Queens, Upper Class, Middle Class, Lower Class, and Slaves

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Royalty

The king and the queen at the top of society

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Upper Class

Wealthy landowners, government officials, priests, and army commanders

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Middle Class

Merchants and Artisans

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Lower Class

Peasant farmers and laborers

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Slaves

Captives from foreign wars

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Role of Slaves

To serve their owners , without pay

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Role of Women

Almost as equal of rights as men

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Hieroglyphics

An ancient Egyptian writing system where pictures represent ideas and sounds

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Rosetta Stone

A black polished stone with a message in 3 languages, Hieroglyphics, a local language, and Greek

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Papyrus

Paper from reeds near the Nile

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38

Science and Technology

The calendar, it told them when to expect the floods, it kept track of time. Written number and geometry

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39

Hyksos

A group of invaders from Southwest Asia who ruled Egypt

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40

Red Sea

A sea stretching from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

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Mediterranean Sea

Was used for transportation for merchants and travelers, also used for trade

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Isthmus of Suez

Linked to the Mediterranean and Red seas

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Desert

Provided barriers for protection to the Egypt Kingdom, or so they thought

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Queen Ahhotep

Helped to drive out the Hyksos, she overtook the throne after her husband died

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King Kamose

The next pharaoh after Queen Ahhotep, he won great victory over the Hyksos

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Role of Israelites

The remaining Israelites after the Hyksos were defeated, stayed in Egypt and were forced into slavery

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New Kingdom

When the Hyksos were overthrown

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Hatshepsut

One of the rulers of the New Kingdom, unique

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Thutmose III

Hatshepsut's stepson

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Nubia

A region of Africa that straddled the upper Nile river

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Hittites

A group that had moved into Asia Minor

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Ramses II

The pharaoh and Hittite King

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Amon-Re

Egypt's Chief God

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"Sea Peoples'

The attackers of the Egyptian empire and the Hittite Kingdom

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Judaism

A monotheistic religion, the belief in one god

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Promised Land

Canaan was promised to the Israelites

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Torah

The first five books of the Hebrew Bible

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Abraham

The "father" of the Jewish people

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Monotheism

The belief in one god

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Covenant

Mutual promise between two people

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Moses

The man who led the Israelites out of slavery

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Exodus

The event when the Israelites fled Egypt, Passover, Moses was the Exodus

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"Let My People Go"

Moses said that as he lead the Israelites out of slavery

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Mount Sinai

The mountain Moses went to pray on and came back down the the Ten Commandments

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10 Commandments

A code of moral laws, given to Moses by God

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The Arc

Where the Torah is kept in a Synagogue

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New Covenant

The ten commandments, God promised to protect the Israelites and they promised to keep God's commandments

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Mosaic Law

The Laws of Moses, the Torah

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Israel

The new kingdom

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Judah

An Israelite kingdom in Canaan

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Tribute

A payment made from a lower power to a higher power for protection

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Saul

The first of three kings

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David

The second king, Saul's son in law

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Solomon

The last king of the three and he was the son of David

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Babylonian Captivity

Also called Babylonian exile, where the Jews were held captive

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The boy who died at 14

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Saul

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David

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Solomon

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