Microbiology Exam 1

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Among these types of microorganisms, the ______ are noncellular.

a. viruses

b. helminths

c. protozoans

d. bacteira

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1

Among these types of microorganisms, the ______ are noncellular.

a. viruses

b. helminths

c. protozoans

d. bacteira

a. viruses

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2

Studies of the immune response to an infection caused by microorganisms would be performed by a-an:

a. bacteriologist

b. epidemiologist

c. immunologist

d. geomicrobiologist

c. immunologist

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3

The microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes are called

a. decomposers

b. prokaryotes

c. pathogens

d. eukaryotes

e. fermenters

a. decomposers

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4

The three cell types discussed, eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria all derived from

a. a common ancestral cell

b. photosynthetic bacteria

c. archaea

d. cells with a true nucleus

a. a common ancestral cell

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5

Which area of biology states that living things undergo gradual structural and functional changes over long periods of time?

a. morphology

b. phylogeny

c. evolution

d. genetics

e. taxonomy

c. evolution

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6

When humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms, the process is called

a. bioremediation

b. genetic engineering

c. epidemiology

d. immunology

e. taxonomy

b. genetic engineering

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7

Using microbes to detoxify a site contaminated with heavy metals is an example of

a. biotechnology

b. bioremediation

c. decomposition

d. immunology

e. epidemiology

b. bioremediation

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8
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9

Which of the follwing is a unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from the other major groups of microorganisms?

a. cause human disease

b. lack a nucleus

c. cannot be seen without a microscope

d. contain genetic material

e. lack cell structure

e. lack cell structure

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10

Which group of microorganisms is composed only of hereditary material wrapped in a protein covering?

a. viruses

b. bacteria

c. parasites

d. fungi

e. yeasts

a. viruses

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11

Eukaryotic cells are larger than bacteria or archaeal cells; all cells are larger than macromolecules. Where do viruses fit on this scale?

a. viruses are larger than eukaryotic cells

b. viruses are smaller than eukaryotic cells, but larger than bacterial or archaeal cells

c. viruses are smaller than bacterial or archaeal cells, but larger than macromolecules

d. viruses are smaller than macromolecules

c. viruses are smaller than bacterial or archaeal cells, but larger than macromolecules

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12

Koch’s postulates are criteria used to establish that

a. microbes are found on dust particles

b. a specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease

c. life forms can only arise from preexisting life forms

d. a specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease

b. a specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease

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13

Which of the following is NOT a recent discovery that has had a huge impact on the understanding of microbiology?

a. restriction enzymes

b. PCR technique

c. Human microbiome project

d. All are significant discoveries

d. All are significant discoveries

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14

Which of the following is NOT a process in the scientific method?

a. belief in a preconceived idea

b. formulation of a hypothesis

c. systematic observation

d. laboratory experimentation'

e. development of a theory

a. belief in a preconceived idea

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15

Sterile is best describes as

a. pathogen-free

b. absence of spores

c. absence of any life forms and viral particles

d. pasteurized

e. homogenized

c. absence of any life forms and viral particles

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16

Taxonomy does not involve

a. nomenclature

b. classification

c. identification

d. a common name

d. a common name

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17

Which of the following is a scientific name?

a. Gram-positive streptococcus

b. Streptococcus pyrogenes

c. Anthrax

d. Streptobacilli

b. Streptococcus pyrogenes

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18

When assigning a scientific name to an organism

a. the species name is always capitalized

b. the species name is placed first

c. the species name can be abbreviated

d. both genus and species name are capitalized

e. both genus and species names are italicized or underlined

e. both genus and species names are italicized or underlined

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19

Which scientific name is written correctly?

a. Staphylococcus aureus

b. staphylococcus aureus

c. Staphylococcus Aureus

d. Staphylococcus aureus

d. Staphylococcus aureus

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20

The electrons of an atom are

a. always equal to the number of protons

b. used to determine the atomic weight

c. carrying a positive charge

d. used to determine the atomic number

e. always in full orbitals

a. always equal to the number of protons

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21

What is the maximum number of electrons in the second energy shell of an atom?

a. 2

b. 4

c. 8

d. 18

e. 32

c. 8

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22

Protons and neutrons make up the atom’s central core, which is referred to as its

a. valence number

b. isotope

c. nucleus

d. center of gravity

c. nucleus

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23

The valence number is the

a. number of protons

b. number of neutrons

c. number of electrons in the innermost shell

d. number of electrons in the outermost orbital

d. number of electrons in the outermost orbital

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24

Organic chemicals always have a basic framework of the elements ___ bonded to other atoms.

a. carbon

b. nitrogen

c. oxygen

d. hydrogen

e. phosphorus

a. carbon

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25

Substances that release ions when dissolved in water and conduct electricity are

a. covalent

b. nonpolar

c. electrons

d. electrolytes

e. solvents

d. electrolytes

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26

covalent bonds

a. result from losing electrons

b. are always polar

c. are always nonpolar

d. result from sharing electrons

e. result from gaining electrons

d. result from sharing electrons

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27

Cations are

a. charged subatomic particles

b. atoms that have gained electrons

c. atoms that have gained neutrons

d. capable of forming ionic bonds with anions

e. atoms without protons

d. capable of forming ionic bonds with anions

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28

A reaction where an electron is lost is called

a. oxidation

b. reduction

c. ionization

d. decomposition

e. dissolution

a. oxidation

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29

Ions bonds

a. result from sharing electrons

b. result from transferring electrons

c. result from charge attraction

d. are the weakest chemical bonds

e. always involve carbon

b. result from transferring electrons

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30

Which of the following represents a synthesis reaction?

a. AB—> A + B

b. A + B —> AB

c. AB + XY —> AY + XB

d. AB + XY —> AY + XB

b. A + B —> AB

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31

What type of bond is formed by dehydration synthesis between two amino acids?

a. glycosidic

b. ester

c. peptide

d. disulfide

e. phosphate

c. peptide

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32

Most biochemical macromolecules are polymers, which are chains of

a. hydrophobic molecules

b. electrolytic molecules

c. repeating monomers

d. repeating carbohydrates

e. hydrogen bonds

c. repeating monomers

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33

All of the following are monosaccharides except

a. glucose

b. glycogen

c. fructose

d. deoxyribose

b. glycogen

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34

All of the following are lipids except

a. cholesterol

b. starch

c. wax

d. triglyceride

b. starch

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35

What part of a phospholipid comprises the hydrophobic tail?

a. fatty acids

b. glycerol

c. phosphate

d. alcohol

e. hydroxyl

a. fatty acids

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36

The building blocks of most enzymes are

a. nucleotides

b. glycerol and fatty acids

c. monosaccharides

d. amino acids

d. amino acids

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37

An amino acid contains all of the following except a-an

a. amino group

b. carboxyl group

c. variable R group

d. alpha carbon

e. phosphate

e. phosphate

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38

All of the following are polysaccharides except

a. dextran in some bacterial slime layers

d. agar used to make solid culture media

c. a cell’s glycocalyx

d. cellulose in certain cell walls

e. sterols in cell membranes

e. sterols in cell membranes

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39

The lipid group that is the major component of cell membranes is the

a. prostaglandins

b. phospholipids

c. steroids

d. triglycerides

e. triglycerides

b. phospholipids

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40

The alpha helix is a type of ___ protein structure.

a. primary

b. secondary

c. tertiary

d. quaternary

b. secondary

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41

One nucleotide contains one

a. phosphate

b. pentose sugar

c. nitrogen base

d. all the choices are correct

d. all the choices are correct

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42

Which pertains to DNA, but not to RNA

a. contains ribose

b. contains adenine

c. contains thymine

d. contains uracil

e. contains nucleotides

c. contains thymine

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43

ATP is best described as

a. an enzyme

b. a double helix

c. an electron carrier

d. the energy molecule of cells

d. the energy molecule of cells

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44

Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are examples of the ___ level of protein structure.

a. primary

b. secondary

c. tertiary

d. quaternary

b. secondary

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45

Select the number of phosphates present in a molecule to ATP.

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

b. 4

c. 3

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