Chemistry: Unit 1 Vocabulary

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What group are the alkali metals in?

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1

What group are the alkali metals in?

Group 1

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2

How many valence electrons do the alkali metals have?

one

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3

Physical properties of alkali metals (4)

Soft, shiny, metallic solids. High electric and heat conductivity. Low densities. Low melting points.

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4

How do alkali metals ionize?

They lose their electrons and become cations.

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5

What is the charge of an ionized alkali metal?

positive one (+1)

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6

What group are the alkali earth metals in?

Group 2

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7

How many valence electrons do the alkali earth metals have?

two

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8

Physical properties of alkali earth metals (6)

Metallic solids. Harder than the alkali metals. Shiny and lustrous. Oxidize easily. More dense than the alkali metals. Higher melting points than alkali metals.

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9

How do alkali earth metals ionize?

They lose their electrons and become cations.

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10

What is the charge of an ionized alkali earth metal?

positive two (+2)

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11

What groups are the transition metals in?

Groups 3 - 12

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12

Physical properties of transition metals (5)

Hard metallic solids. Shiny, lustrous. High electric and heat conductivity. Dense. High melting points.

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13

What group are the halogens in?

Group 17 (7A)

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14

How many valence electrons do the halogens have?

seven

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15

Physical properties of halogens (2)

Reactive nonmetals. Different elements come in various states of matter.

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16

How do halogens ionize?

They gain electrons and become anions.

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17

What is the charge of an ionized halogen?

negative one (-1)

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18

What group are the noble gases in?

Group 18 (8A)

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19

How many valence electrons do the noble gases have?

eight

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20

Physical properties of noble gases (2)

Typically monatomic gases. Rarely form compounds.

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21

Why aren't noble gases reactive?

Their outer shells are full, therefore they are stable.

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22

What type of decay releases electrons?

Beta

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23

What type of decay releases helium?

Alpha

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24

Which type of decay is the least detectable?

Gamma

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25

How many electrons fit in s orbitals?

two

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26

How many electrons fit in p orbitals?

six

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27

How many electrons fit in d orbitals?

ten

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28

How many electrons fit in f orbitals?

fourteen

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29

What are some characteristics of metals? (7)

High luster. Malleable and ductile. Hard. Low valence electron count. Conductive of heat and electricity. High density. High melting and boiling point.

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30

What are some characteristics of metalloids? (4)

Intermediate properties compared to metals and nonmetals. Physically similar to metals. Non-shiny. Semi-conductors.

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31

What are some characteristics of nonmetals?

Brittle. Non-shiny. Varied properties. Poor conductors. Tend to form anions.

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32

Who organized the periodic table?

Dimitri Mendeleev

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33

List the diatomic elements.

H, N, O, F, Cl, I, Br

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34

What are diatomic elements?

Elements that appear as molecules in pairs. (O₂) Too unstable to exist on their own.

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35

In isotope notation, what side are the mass numbers and atomic numbers on?

The left side

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36

In isotope notation, which number on the left is on the top?

Mass number

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37

In isotope notation, which number on the left is on the bottom?

Atomic number

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38

In isotope notations, what does the number on the right represent?

The charge of the ion

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39

The Pauli exclusion principle

Two of the same electrons cannot exist in the same location, and so electrons in the same orbital must have opposing spins.

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40

Hund's rule

All electrons with the same spin must occupy orbitals BEFORE the electrons with opposite spin may join them.

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41

What are the main exceptions for electron configurations?

Chromium and Copper

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42

How do you calculate average atomic mass?

Multiply the mass of each isotope by their natural abundance. Add these three numbers, and you will get the average atomic mass.

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43

What type of decay causes an element to lose two protons?

Alpha

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44

What type of decay turns a neutron into a proton?

Beta

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45

What type of decay adds a proton to an element?

Beta

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46

Nuclear fusion

The combining of two smaller nuclei forming one large nucleus. Releases neutrons.

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47

Nuclear fission

Occurs when a large nucleus is split into two or more small nuclei, usually after a neutron hits it.

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48

Electronegativity

The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself.

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49

Ionization energy

The amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom.

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50

Atomic radius

The size of an atom. Distance from the center of the nucleus to the outermost electrons.

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51

Electronegativity trends

Increases from left to right across a period. Decreases down a group.

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52

Ionization energy trends

Increases across periods. Decreases down a group.

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53

Atomic radius trends

Decreases across periods. Increases down a group.

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54

What is the element with the highest electronegativity?

Fluorine

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55

What is the element with the highest ionization energy?

Helium

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56

What is the element with the highest atomic radius?

Francium

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